Engineering Glossary

Do you know your Accumulator from your Zener diode? Can you tell the difference between an EPROM and an EEPROM? Whether you are a novice to the electronics world or you just need to brush up on some of the terminology, Farnell has the world's definitive Electronic Glossary on all things electronic.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |


A/D converter
An IC or a circuit board that gives digital samples representing amplitude as the output by taking a continuous physical quantity (eg voltage) as input.
Interrupting a continuous or looping operation or process due to an expected/unexpected faults, problems or cause.
See Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene.
Absolute Address
An explicitly defined or an exact fixed address in memory.
Absolute Gain
The ratio of the output signal to the input signal of a device under a specified absolute conditions.
Absolute Maximum Rating
A maximum operating condition of a device, long exposure to these ratings or increasing the rating above this may result in causing irreversible damage to the device.
Absorption Wavemeter
A simple piece of equipment that is used in measuring the energy of a specified radio frequency.
Absorption, Law
Also known as Absorption identity, an algebraic mathematical equality relation linking a pair of binary operations.
AC Coupled Amplifier
An amplifier/multistage amplifier circuit that uses AC coupling in order to block DC current in between one stage to another.
AC Coupling
Also known as Capacitive Coupling, it is the transfer of energy within a circuit using capacitors in series.
AC generator
A machine that is capable of converting mechanical energy to electrical energy and also reverses the direction many times per second.
AC Line Voltage
AC Line Voltage is the amount of voltage which a power line delivers to its destination, or the point where it is being consumed. It is normally delivered within a certain range depending on the standardization by individual countries. In the United States, the two standards are 117V and 234V and in the United Kingdom, this figure stands at 230V. Though this can vary.
AC Power Plug
A mechanical piece of equipment (connector) that act as the electrical interface/bridge between electrical/electronic device (or any electrically operated equipment) and the electrical power source.
AC Resistance
When an AC current flows through a circuit, the relation between current and voltage takes into account the ratio of magnitudes and the difference in phase of the current and voltage.
Accelerated Life Testing
Accelerated Life Testing is a process that determines the reliability/life of the product or the maximum stress that the product can withstand.
Accelerating Anode
An electrode in an electron tube to which, typically, a positive potential is applied to increase the velocity of cathode rays.
Acceleration Servosystem
Acceleration Servo system is a servo system that controls the acceleration (A change in velocity as a function of time) of a load.
An Accelerometer is an instrument that is used to measure typically non-gravitational accelerations like the accelerations of a vibrating or moving body.
Acceptor Impurity
An acceptor Impurity is a physical material which when added to a semiconductor can form P-type region by creating positive charges or holes in the semiconductor material like silicon or germanium.
Access Bus
A peripheral interconnect communication system to transfer between devices similar to USB. It never became as popular due to its slow speed limits.
Access Time
The time elapsed between requesting and receiving a data.
An accessory is a functional/non-functional part of any device that is not mandatory for a device to work but extends the capabilities of the device when used together.
A large rechargeable electric cell or a memory register used to contain the results of an arithmetical or logical operation.
Acknowledge Character
Acknowledge Character is a signal that a receiving station transmits in order to indicate that a block of information has been received and that its validity has been checked.
Acorn Tube
A very small valve that resembles the shape of an acorn enclosed with small and closely spaced electrodes, used to work with various frequency applications.
Acoustic Noise
A deliberate or unintended noise generated in an acoustic domain.
Acoustic Wave
Acoustic wave is longitudinal wave generated as a result of the vibration from any source(such as a machine). Acoustic wave that can be heard by a normal human ear is termed as Sound Waves.
An interdisciplinary science related to the study of sound, vibration etc… especially to the generation, transmission and reception of sound.
Obtaining an asset, object or learning a skill.
Acquisition Time
The interval it takes to obtain what is required, eg. A GPS receiver obtaining satellite signals to determine position.
Also known as ABS, it is a terpolymer that is typically used for injection moulding or as a 3D printing filament.
Active Component
An active component is the one that needs an input supply for its functioning and may or may not alter the input signal.
Active Filter
A simple analogue circuit that makes use of active components, built to improve the performance of the filter.
Active High
Where the binary 1 is represented by a high voltage, with a binary 0 represented by a low voltage.
Active low
Where the binary 1 is represented by a low voltage, with a binary 1 represented by a high voltage.
Active Pullup
An art of using the active component (like transistor or FET) to pull up a line high instead of a passive resistor.
Actuating force
The force that must be applied to an actuator in order to complete the intended operation.
A type of motor for interacting with a mechanism or system operated by a source of energy.
See A/D Converter.
Advanced Very Large Scale Integration
Advanced Very Large Scale Integration is the process of creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistors on a single chip.
See Arithmetic Logic Unit
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
A data transmission code used in representing the alphabets and numbers in computers that is common to most of the other computers. Standard ASCII uses 7-bit code(2^7 = 128 characters) while the extended ASCII uses a 8-bit code(2^8 = 256 characters).
A system in which all the information and signals are represented only by a physical quantity that continuously varies with time such as voltage.
Analogue DI
Analogue Dielectric Isolation is an analogue integrated circuit technique using dielectric isolation technology. Dielectric Isolation has proven particularly advantageous for fabricating high performance analogue ICs.
Analogue oscilloscope
An Analogue oscilloscope is a measurement apparatus capable of visually depicting regular changes in electrical activity, such as an electrical current or signal. The resulting data appears as a waveform drawn on a graph with two axes, where the horizontal X axis represents time and the vertical Y axis indicates voltage. In addition, the luminance of the waveform itself is often referred to as the Z axis, which demonstrates the intensity of the activity measured.
Analogue semi-custom
Designing an analogue circuit or an analogue IC in accordance to the requirement of the specific design.
Analogue signal processing
Processing of any signal that is mathematically represented as a set of continuous values. As opposed to a series of discrete quantities.
Angular Velocity
Angular Velocity is the rate of change of angular displacement with respect to time. It is represented by the symbol omega (ω, rarely Ω)and the SI unit is radians per second.
Application Specific Integrated Circuit
Application Specific Integrated Circuit is a circuit or an IC that is dedicatedly designed for a particular/specific application rather than the general purpose IC's like microcontrollers. An example is a Bitcoin miner or digital voice recorder.
Application specific standard product
An application-specific standard product (ASSP) is a semiconductor IC that implements a specific function that appeals to a wide market, as opposed to an ASIC which is specific for one demographic.
Arithmetic logic unit
A digital circuit that performs integer arithmetic and logical operations as part of a processing unit.
See American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
See Application Specific Integrated Circuit.
See Application Specific Standard Product.
See Advanced Very Large Scale Integration.


Back Resistance
The maximum resistance noted while measuring the resistance of a semiconductor.
Back Shell
A hood/cover which protects cable connections to a connector.
Typically (a) high-speed/high-capacity digital link(s) which forms the basis of a wide area network.
Background Noise
Unwanted captured sound or signals that are additional to that being monitored.
A group of connectors that are linked such that they form a computer bus. These can be active or passive.
Bad Block / Bad Sector
A portion of a storage medium measured in kilobytes that is deemed unreadable by the operating system or hardware controller.
Adjusting the impedance of the circuit in order to achieve certain objective.
Balanced Amplifier
An amplifier having two similar branches operating in opposite phase for the inputs and in phase for the outputs with both balanced to ground.
Balanced Attenuator
Balanced attenuator is an attenuator that has same number of resistive elements are connected equally to each side of the transmission line with the ground located at a centre point created by the balanced parallel resistances.
Balanced Bridge
A wheatstone bridge circuit in a quiescent state having a zero output voltage.
Balanced Circuit
Balanced Circuit is an electrical or electronic circuitry whose two sides are electrically alike and symmetrical with respect to a common reference point, usually ground. The balanced circuit is used for high-power or high-electromagnetic interference immunity.
Balanced Code
In coding theory, a balanced code is a binary forward error correction code for which each codeword contains an equal number of zero and one bits. Balanced codes allow for particularly efficient decoding, which can be carried out in parallel.
Balanced Line
Balanced line connections are used in audio for long cable transmissions lines that consists of two conductors of the same type, each of which have equal impedances along their lengths and equal impedances to ground and to other circuits.
Balanced Mixer
A non linear electric circuit that takes two signal frequencies as input and outputs - two new frequencies which are the sum and differences of the input frequencies.
Balanced Phase Detector
Balanced Phase Detector is a circuit that controls the oscillator frequency.
A device that is meant to limit the amount of current flow in the electric circuit.
Ballast Resistor
A fixed or variable resistor that is connected in series to limit the amount of current flow.
Balanced/unbalanced. A type of electrical transformer used to couple balanced and unbalanced circuits.
Banana Jack
A female single wired connector that is used to join wire to the electronic equipment.
Banana Plug
A single wire connector with a banana shaped strip of metal forming a spring at its tip.
Band-Elimination Filter
Prevents a receiving unit from recognising a specific range of frequencies.
BandGap Reference
Temperature independent circuit to produce a fixed voltage regardless of supply variations. Usually with an output of 1.25v.
Bandpass Amplifier
A band pass filter is an amplifier stage design to pass a range of frequencies while rejecting frequencies outside the upper and lower limits of the pass band. These filters can be made by combining the first order low pass and high pass filters.
Bandpass Filter
A filter that allows certain frequencies between a band of two finite numbers while attenuating any frequencies that is higher or lower than the band.
Band-Reject Filter
Similar to a band-stop or Band-Elimination filter, a band-reject filter also allows all frequencies to pass through rejecting only the frequencies between two finite non-zero limits/bands.
Band-Stop Filter
Similar to a Band-Elimination or band-reject filter, band-stop filter also allows all frequencies to pass through rejecting only the frequencies between two finite non zero limits/bands.
A range of frequencies within a given band or the transmission capacity of a computer network.
Bandwidth limit
The Bandwidth limit refers to the limitations in the frequency for a waveform in order to display it (waveform) without or negligible noise.
Bank is a number of devices of the same type.
Bare Conductor
A conductor with no covering.
A resistor added to a circuit to compensate for changes.
In Number system, Base is the number raised to the power which represents the number of units of a number system. In transistor, Base is a lead that is responsible for activating the transistor. By applying a small current at the base allows large current to flow from collector to emitter.
Base-Injection Modulator
A modulator circuit in which the transistor gain is varied by varying the base current.
Fundamentals of anything.
A lowest frequency sound.
Bass Control
The tone control circuit that attenuates the higher frequency audio signals.
Behavioural simulation
Mean to simulate the behaviour of the function using a pre-synthesis Hardware Description Language (HDL), behavioural simulation runs the fastest but provides the least design information.
See Bipolar Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor.
Bimetallic is a combination of two different metals.
Binary number system
A way of representation of numbers that is employed in computers and digital system in which there are only possible values are '0' & '1' and numbers are represented by 2 as its base. Ex: 10011 represents 19. ((1 × 24) + (0 × 23) + (0 × 22) + (1 × 21) + (1 × 20)).
Bipolar Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
A semiconductor technology that is developed by the combination of bipolar and CMOS technologies inheriting the advantages of both the technologies like high speed, high gain and low output resistance from bipolar and low-power, high input resistance from the COMS technology. The logic gates are primarily made of CMOS, but their output stages use bipolar junction transistors.
Bipolar transistor
An active three terminal/layer device that is formed by sandwiching one type of material(either P type or N type) between the other that can conduct the current in either direction and is commonly used as an amplifier, switch or as a function as an oscillator.
See Building In Reliability.
BNC connector
The Bayonet Neill–Concelman (BNC) connectors is a miniature RF connector designed to use with coaxial cables. These connectors are very easy to connect or disconnect with their mating parts.
A temporary storage area in which the data that is to be transmitted/received is stored in order to provide the synchronization between the microcontroller and its peripheral.
Building In Reliability
Developing a product so as to overcome any environmental or electrical disturbances over a given period of its lifetime.
A group/bunch of parallel wires or transmission path that is to transfer the data between the microcontroller and its peripherals.
Bus driver
An IC that facilitates drive to the CPU in cases where more number of peripherals are connected to a bus increasing the capacitive load that slow down the data rate and also preventing the time sequencing.
See Bandwidth.


See C (programming language).
C (programming language)
A general purpose, high level programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs, because of the added advantages like efficiency and machine independence 'C' has become the most beloved and useful language for engineering software developments.
An insulated wire or a group of wires that are used in transmitting either electrical signals (power cable), or data (network cable) or light waves (optic cables).
Cable Armour
A additional protective material such as a steel tape or a steel wire that will enclose the core conductors.
Cable Assembly
A cable that is terminated with connectors at either both ends or single end depending upon the application and is ready to be installed and transmit signals.
Cable Carrier
A cable carrier is a device that contains and protects cables attached to moving equipment to allow the cable to move with minimal strain while reducing the risk of injuries to workers in the area.
Cable Clamp
A mechanical metal clip that holds the cable along its path providing all the mechanical support required by the cable for the better transmission of signals like avoiding stress and absorbing shock and vibrations etc.
Cable Harness
A bunch of wires or cables that interconnects a system and a sub system.
Cable Jacket
A protective cover for the core wire.
Cable Leakage
The loss of the signal in the cable due to a gap in the shielding or loose contact near connector or open ended cables etc.
Cable Modem
A cable modem is an equipment that acts as a interface bridge between the computer and the internet via coaxial cables.
Cable Sheath
A single layer or multiple layers of a protective covering over a cable that holds and protects the conductors inside.
Cable Splitter
A cable splitter is a device that has two or more ports at one of its ends. It splits the electrical signal of a cable equally to all ports on the splitter.
Cable Tray
A Cable Tray is used to support electric cables use for power supply and communication.
Cable, Coaxial
A cable that includes one physical channel that carries the signal surrounded by another concentric physical channel with an insulation layer in between and both running along the same axis.
Cache memory is a smaller, fast memory that is built into a computer CPU, or located next to it on a separate chip. cache used to reduce the average time to access memory.
See Computer-Aided Design.
See Computer-Aided Engineering.
Cage Code
A Commercial and Government Entity Code, or CAGE Code, is a five-character ID number that is used extensively within a federal government. The first and fifth characters must be numeric; the others can be numbers or letters.
See Computer-Aided Manufacturing.
See Controller Area Network.
Cancel Character
Cancel Character is an accuracy control character used by some conventions to indicate that associated data are in error, are to be disregarded, or cannot be represented on a particular device.
The ratio of charge stored in either of the plate to the potential difference between the plates. Or simply the ability of the capacitor to store charge in it.
Capacitive Coupling
Using a capacitor as a means for transferring energy from one stage of a circuit to the next or from one circuit to another.
Capacitive Load
A type of load in which the capacitive reactance exceeds the rest and the current leads the voltage.
Capacitive Reactance
The internal resistance of the capacitor that offers resistance to the flow of current through it during the charging or discharging of the capacitor.
A charge storage device, that has two conducting plates separated by a non conducting material (dielectric).
Capacitor Microphone
A type of microphone that uses a capacitor in which one rigid plate is fixed and the other flexible plate forming the diaphragm that is moved by vibrations or sound waves causing variations in capacitance thus converting acoustic to electric energy.
Capacitor-Start Motor
A single phase motor that gets the only the starting torque by the capacitor and later when the motor attains the required speed the capacitor gets automatically disconnected from the circuit.
Capture Ratio
Capture Ratio is a measure of the ability of a frequency-modulation tuner to reject the weaker of two stations that are on the same frequency.
Carbon Microphone
The carbon microphone is also known as carbon button microphone, button microphone, or carbon transmitter, is a transducer that converts sound to an electrical audio signal. It consists of two metal plates that are divided by granules of carbon where one plate is very thin and faces outward, acting as a diaphragm. When sound strikes the moveable plate, it vibrates the carbon, changing the resistance in the carbon. The change in resistance is read by electrical equipment to convert the sound into an electrical signal.
Carbon Resistor
Resistor whose binder consist of carbon particles.
Card Cage
Card Cage is a frame for holding circuit cards in a computer system.
Card Extractor
A card extractor is used to remove telephony and control cards from the card cage.
Card Stiffener
Card Stiffener is a rigid item mounted to a printed wiring board. A stiffener for a printed circuit board which comprises an elongated metallic electrically conductive bar.
Card Bus is the trade name for an advanced PC Card. It is a 32-bit version of the PCMCIA PC Card standard. In addition to supporting a wider bus (32 bits instead of 16 bits), Card Bus also supports bus mastering and operation speeds up to 33MHz.
An electromagnetic wave that can be modulated either by amplitude, frequency or phase in order to carry a signal.
Carrier Frequency
Transmitted electromagnetic wave at steady base frequency of alteration over which the information is imposed by increasing the signal strength, varying the phase, base frequency etc.
Carrier Wave
In modulation process, the baseband signal such as voice, video etc modifies another high frequency signal which is sine wave called as carrier wave.
Cartridge Fuse
Electrical circuit protection device enclosed in a cartridge that can interrupt the flow of current when the load draws more current than the fuse capacity.
Cascade Amplifier
A multi stage amplifier connected in a series in which the output of one amplifier will be taken as the input to the next amplifier.
Inter connecting more than one circuit in series with one other.
Case Temperature
Temperature of the case when a semiconductor device/component is operating in normal conditions.
Wheel that is mounted under any object (usually heavy object) so that it can be moved around easily.
Cadence Design System's version of the popular circuit simulator, SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) is a general-purpose, open source analogue electronic circuit simulator. It is a powerful program that is used in integrated circuit and board-level design to check the integrity of circuit designs and to predict circuit behaviour. Simulating the circuit with SPICE is the industry-standard way to verify circuit operation at the transistor level before committing to manufacturing an integrated circuit.
Central Processing Unit
Also known as the brain of the computer, the CPU is a part of the computer hardware consisting of data registers, computational circuits, the control block, and I/O that is responsible for executing all the instructions given to the computer.
Chip carrier
A type of surface mounting component package for IC's in which the electrical connections are allowed to made in all the four sides of the square shaped package.
A tiny piece of semiconducting material on which millions of electronic discrete components are embedded and interconnected.
Chip-level integration
Integrating the functionalities and /or technologies of more than one chip on to a single chip so that the resulting chip inherits properties of both the inherited chips allowing the design even more compact and cost effective.
A technology for mounting/assembling the device on the circuit board in which the IC is directly bonded or electrically interconnected with the PCB either by wire bonding, TAB or flip-chip interconnections.
See Computer-Integrated Manufacturing.
A interconnection of many electric and electronic components in a predetermined manner so as to achieve a specific function.
Circuit simulation
The use of a mathematical model of a electrical circuit before it is sent to the fabrication process by means of a sophisticated simulation software so as to accurately check the behaviour of the components and make sure the circuit yields the intended result.
See Complex Instruction Set Computer
Class 'B'
A screening process for circuits that are intended for use in ground-based military electronic systems. Must conform with screening standards per MIL-std 883-C and MIL-M-38510.
Class 'S'
A screening process for circuits that are intended for use in satellite systems for military space applications. Must conform with screening standards per MIL-std 883-C and MIL-M-38510.
Closed architecture
An system in which the design features and technical specifications are not kept undisclosed or not open to other manufacturers and the system is also made in compactable with other tools and software's.
See Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor.
A successions of CMOS technologies to support a wide range of digital applications.
See Chip-On-Board.
One of the three terminals of a transistor, in an NPN transistor the amplified output is taken from the collector terminal.
Communication triggering
Communication Trigger appears in the A-Event menu in the Pinpoint trigger system. Mask testing involves triggering the waveform in such a way that it can be compared to an industry standard mask template. Selections of triggering are AMI, HDB3, BnZS, CMI, MLT3 and NRZ encoded communications signals up to 1.5 Gb/s and 8b/10b encoded serial data up to 6.25 Gb/s.
A electronic component or a device that simply compares the two input signals. The output depends on the type of comparator used.
A compiler itself is a software program that is meant to identify the errors in the high level language(C, C++ etc..) program for which it is meant to and finally translate given program into machine code.
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
A widely used semiconductor technology to manufacture Integrated circuits that has less power requirement than other technologies. Both the negative polarity and the positive polarity are fabricated in the same die thus making it more suitable for battery operated products.
Complex Instruction Set Computer
A type of processor architecture in which a single instruction is capable of performing several step operations.
Computer-Aided Design
The use of computer with sophisticated, interactive graphical software in developing, drawing, verifying and optimizing a particular design.
Computer-Aided Engineering
The use of computer with sophisticated, interactive graphical software in developing/drawing, verifying and optimizing a electrical circuit design rather than a physical design.
Computer-Aided Manufacturing
The use of computer with sophisticated, interactive graphical software in managing a design process by planning, tracking, analyzing and implementing the manufacturing of a design.
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
A manufacturing process that is completely automated or controlled by a computer. This is a process that is a combination of CAD and CAM followed by automated storage and distribution.
Any material or object that has the properties of conductivity. i.e. allows the current to pass through its body.
Controller Area Network
A digital serial message based communication protocol that allows the microcontroller and other peripheral devices to communicate with each other. Initially it was designed to work with industrial environments as automotive bus.
A semiconductor device or a circuit that converts the input signal from one form to another.
See Central Processing Unit
The movement of electrons or holes through a conducting body that is induced due to the potential applied across the conducting body and is measured in terms of amperes.
Current probe
Current probe is an electrical device designed to sense the current flow through the conductor and convert it to a corresponding voltage for measurement by an oscilloscope.
Custom integrated circuit
An Integrated Circuit is a circuit or an IC that is dedicatedly designed and developed as per the requirement of a particular customer specification.


D Flip Flop
See Data/Delay Flip Flop.
See Digital-to-Analogue Converter.
Daisy Chain
An interconnection architecture in which the components are interconnected in series with one another.
Damped Natural Frequency
The rate of free oscillation of a sensing element in the presence of damping.
Damped Oscillation
An Oscillation that decays over time.
Damped Wave
Any wave whose amplitude gradually goes down over time and eventually goes to zero.
A process in which the amplitude of the wave gradually reduces and finally approaches to zero.
Damping Coefficient
The definition of how frequently any system can reduce the amplitude (strength) of the oscillation over a certain time. Also defined as the ratio of damping to critical damping.
A compound structure in which the current amplified by one bipolar transistor is again subjected to be amplified by the second bipolar transistor.
D'Arsonval Meter Movement
A movement caused by the electromagnetic deflection in which the needle in the meter is deflected when the current is passed through the coil.
Data acquisition
A process in which the real world physical or electrical signals such as a voltage, current, temperature etc, are measured and converted into discrete values for further actions.
Data Bandwidth
In a given time period, the amount of data that has been transmitted through a communication channel. The Data Bandwidth is usually expressed in bits per second (bps) or bytes per second.
Data Block
A data block is a sequence of data in bits or bytes that are usually transferred as a whole.
Data Bus
A group of wires or a transmission path in a electronic board or system that allow data to be transferred between one component to another.
Data Communication
The exchange of data in either analogue or digital form via a communication media between the sender and the receiver.
Data Compaction
Data Compaction is a method of reducing the number of bits that needed to represent information. Data compression allows higher communications speeds without information loss.
Data Compression
The art of reducing the size of the data in order to store larger amount of data in a small space (or time or frequency) without any redundancy so that the data can be transferred more efficiently using minimum resources.
Data Conversion
The art of changing the data from one format to another.
Data Encryption Standard
A form of secret key cryptography (SKC) developed in 1975 and standardized by ANSI in 1981 that uses only one key for both encryption and decryption.
Data Frame
A sequence of bits that encloses the data that has to be transmitted along with other required information such as source/destination addresses etc in a particular format that can be understood and decoded by the intended receiver.
Data Integrity
Data integrity means maintaining the consistency and accuracy of the data over its lifetime during all the phases like storing, retrieving, transferring etc.
Data Link
Means of connecting source and destination locations in order to receiving and sending the data.
Data Multiplexing
The art of combining and sending more than one signal through a single device that can be later separated into individual signals.
Data Processing
It is the calculation or a required task that is performed by a device mostly a processor to the data.
Data Signalling Rate
The average rate at which the data passes through a particular point along the transmission channel within the system.
Data Stream
The sequence of data that is passing from source to destination through a communication channel in a single operation.
Data Transfer Rate
The speed at which the given amount of data is transferred from source to destination.
Data Transmission
The transfer of a certain amount of information (data) through a dedicated channel to the required destination or destinations.
Data/Delay Flip Flop
A bistable one bit storage device in which the output follows the input when clock is applied.
DC-DC converter
An electrical circuit converts the available value of Direct current to the required level. Most commonly found in battery operated devices.
Depletion-mode FET
The switching mosfet that is designed to be in an 'ON' state when the gate voltage applied is zero and can be turned off by pulling the threshold voltage to positive value for NMOS FETs (comparatively more +ve than source) and negative value to PMOS FETs (comparatively more -ve than source).
A phenomenon in which the ions (+ve or -ve) are deposited on the surface of a metal/substrate.
See Data Encryption Standard.
Design Rule Check
An electronic design automation process which determines whether the layout, the PCB and the circuit satisfy a series of commands known as the design rules before the manufacturing flow.
A non conducting material or an electrical insulator that can be polarized which itself will not allow the flow of charge through it but when it is placed in an electrical field, due to the polarization effect the holes will move towards the field while the electrons move in opposite direction.
Differential probe
Differential probe are optimized for acquiring differential signals. A differential probe is used to look at signals that are referenced to each other instead of earth ground.
A system in which all the information and signals are represented either by binary numbers or discrete values.
Digital integrated circuit
A type of IC that processes only signals with extreme limits i.e. ON/OFF signals and also carries out binary arithmetic and logical operations.
Digital Oscilloscope
A digital oscilloscope is a measurement apparatus that will make use of a Analogue to Digital converter (ADC) that is capable of visually depicting regular changes in electrical activity, such as an electrical current or signal in digital format. In a digital oscilloscopes, the input voltage is sampled at a preset frequency. The x-axis represents the samples along a timeline, and the y-axis shows the voltage levels of each sample. There are three types of Digital Oscilloscopes namely Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope (DPO), Digital Sampling Oscilloscope & Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO).
Digital Sampling Oscilloscope
A Digital Signalling Oscilloscope is a form of Digital Oscilloscope that adopts Equivalent-Time sampling method to capture and display the signal samples. This type of Oscilloscope is used in cases where accuracy in important factor since it accurately captures the signals even if the frequency component of the signal are much greater than the Oscilloscope's sample rate.
Digital signal processing
A circuit that is developed to the mathematical manipulation of the analogue signals such as sound in order to modify or improve the quality of the signal.
Digital Storage Oscilloscope
A form of Digital Oscilloscope that acquires the signal with digital sampling using ADC and it also uses a serial-processing architecture to control acquisition, user interface and the raster display.
Digital-to-Analogue Converter
A device that takes digital samples at its input and gives out the continuous analogue signals.
A Diode is a specialized electronic component with two dissimilar semiconducting substances namely P-junction and n-junction are sandwiched together, typically allowing the flow of current in one direction only.
See Dual In-line Package.
Discrete device
A semiconductor device that has at least one active component in it.
One of the three terminals of the MOSFET.
See Dynamic Random Access Memory.
See Design Rule Check.
An electronic circuit or a device that provides an amplified output that is used to drive the high current loads or serves as an input to another circuit or device.
See Digital Storage Oscilloscope.
See Digital Signal Processing.
See Data Signalling Rate.
Dual In-line Package
A type of semiconductor IC package that is rectangular in shape and the electrical connecting pins(leads) are placed on either side of the device in parallel to each other.
Dynamic Random Access Memory
A type of volatile semiconductor memory - a network of electrically charged points made up of transistors and capacitors(one transistor and one capacitor per bit of memory) - used by the computer for frequent access and temporary storage of data.


A small piece of equipment that converts electrical waves into sound waves.
Earth Ground
In an electrical circuit, ground is a common reference point from which the parameters are measured.
See Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
The reflection of the sound waves after colliding/bouncing back with any surface.
Echo Box
A high-Q resonant cavity used to evaluate the performance of radar.
See Emitter Coupled Logic.
ECL circuit
See Emitter-Coupled Logic circuit.
In computer programming, Eclipse is a multi-language IDE comprising a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment. It has been designed from the ground up for building integrated web and application development tooling.
E-core is a laminated configuration resembling the capital letter E in some transformers and inductive transducers.
Eddy Current
Current that are induced within the conductor by the variation in the magnetic field of the conductor.
Eddy Current Loss
Eddy Current Loss is the losses due to eddy currents formed in the body of the magnetic core where Eddy currents are the currents induced in large conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor.
Edge Connector
A connector with a row of contacts that are internally connected to the tracks of the PCB thus facilitating the connections between the PCB with another board or to any external circuits.
Edge Skew
Edge Skew is difference in the arrival between two edges from the same device.
Edge Triggered Flip Flop
A Flip Flop that tends to change its state at either a positive edge (rising edge) or negative edge (falling edge) of the clock applied.
Edge Triggering
A means of activating a device (unlike a flip-flop) or a circuit with a positive or negative edge or a clock pulse.
Edison Cap
An Edison Screw Cap is a bulb base that is most commonly found in incandescent and fluorescent bulbs.
Edison Cell
A storage battery that is made up of Nickel and Iron. It uses nickel oxide as a cathode and iron as anode while potassium hydroxide acts as a electrolyte.
Edison Effect
Also called as Thermionic emission is a phenomenon in which the electrons are emitted from the hot surface or over a potential-energy barrier flows to a second element through a vacuum tube.
See Embedded Dynamic Random Access Memory.
See Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.
Electrical OverStress
A condition at which the device or the electrical circuit is exposed to the higher value of current or voltage that is beyond the maximum allowable rating.
Electrical Rules Check
A rule check software is run on a electrical circuit that ensures that the electrical connections made in the circuit are acceptable and there is no potential danger to the circuit. It identifies for any floating/unconnected signal line, logic gates directly connected to source etc.. and alerts the designer by displaying respective error and warning messages.
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
A special type of PROM in which the information stored in it can be erased by exposing it to electrical charge at one byte at a time. It is a non volatile memory in which the information stored Is retained even after the power goes off.
A voltage measuring instrument that measures the electrical potential difference between two charged bodies without drawing any current from the source or circuit.
An electron is a negatively charged sub atomic particle that travels around the nucleus of an atom carrying a charge of approximately 1.602 × 10^-19 coulombs with mass of 9.1066 × 10-28 grams. Electrons are considered to be the acting as the primary carrier of electric current.
Electrostatic Discharge
An unexpected sudden release/flow of static electricity in between two electrically charged body when bought to contact. It is a short pulse with varying magnitude that can damage the circuit by junction failure, contact damage, fusing of interconnects and so on.
Embedded Dynamic Random Access Memory
A capacitor based dynamic embedded RAM integrated within the ASIC IC's or processors with a small amount of SRAM inside the large amount of DRAM. These are not available as a separate memory unit.
In transistor, emitter is a lead which is the negative lead. By applying a small current at the base allows large current to flow from collector to emitter.
Emitter Coupled Logic
ECL is a high speed current mode BJT logic family in which emitter is preferred as an output rather than collector. These are faster than TTL logic but consumes more power than TTL.
Emitter-Coupled Logic circuit
A type of current mode logic that is commonly used to build logic gates in which emitters of two transistors are connected to a current carrying resistor so that only one transistor will work at a time. Here output of the transistor is taken from emitter instead of collector.
Enhancement-mode FET
The switching mosfet that is designed to be in 'OFF' state when the gate voltage applied is zero(i.e. Vs.=0) and will turn on when the gate voltage is pulled to drain voltage(VDD) which is positive voltage for NMOS FETs and Negative for PMOS FETs.
See Electrical Over-Stress.
The controlled growth of crystalline over the surface of a crystal substrate so that both the minerals have same structural orientation.
See Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.
Equivalent-time sampling
Equivalent-time sampling is a sampling method in which a waveform is created over time by using a series of samples taken from repetitive waveforms. The advantage of ETS is that it offers a higher effective sample rate.
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
A special type of PROM in which the information/data stored in it can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet radiations for about 20mins approx. It is a non volatile memory in which the information stored is retained even after the power goes off.
See Electrical Rules Check.
See Electrostatic Discharge.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
8-bit character encoding for alphabetic and numeric characters(text files) used mainly in IBM mainframe and midrange operating systems.


Factor defines is a constituent or element that brings about certain effects or results, or indicates a specific multiple, number, or quantity.
In wireless communications, fading is deviation of the attenuation affecting a signal over certain propagation media.
A precautionary device that in an event of failure the device takes all the possible measures required so that no harm or very minimum harm is caused as a result of failure.
The malfunctioning of a device or a component that does not achieve the desired target.
Failure Rate
The number of times the device or the component misses its desired target in the given time, cycles or any other applicable measures.
Fall Time
The time taken by a pulse to decrease its amplitude from usually 90% to 10% of its peak value.
False Clock
False Clock is a clock that is controlled by a phase-locked loop.
False Lock
A condition where the PLL locks to a wrong or non-correct frequency.
A device that uses an electric motor to rotate its thin, rigid blades/wings which helps in moving the air, that later helps in cooling / ventilation and other related purposes.
A common practice in design process is to connect the output of a logic device to more than one device. Fan-out of a logic gate output is the number of gate inputs to which it can be connected.
A SI unit that refers to the capacitance of a capacitor and is equal to the capacitance of a capacitor in which one coulomb of charge causes a potential difference of one volt.
Faraday Cage
A faraday cage is a metallic enclosure that protects the cage content from electric fields and electromagnetic radiations by preventing it from either entering of escaping from the cage (equipment).
Faraday Constant
Faraday constant is the total electric charge carried by Avogadro's number of electrons (one mole). It can be obtained by dividing the Avogadro constant by the number of electrons per coulomb i.e. F = (6.02 x 10^23 ) / (6.24 x 10^18 ) = 96,485.3365 C mol-1.
Faraday Rotation
The magneto-optical phenomenon causing rotation of the polarization plane linearly proportional to the component of the magnetic field in the direction of propagation.
Faraday Shield
An enclosure formed by a conducting material that blocks the electro-static fields without causing any effect on electromagnetic waves.
Far-end Crosstalk
A phenomenon in which the Crosstalk that travels along the disturbed circuit will be in the same direction as that of the desired signals in that circuit.
Fast Bus
Fast bus (IEEE 960) is a computer bus standard, originally intended to replace CAMAC in high-speed, large-scale data acquisition. Fast bus was designed to keep features of older important standards while extending the capabilities of data acquisition systems.
Fast Recovery Diode
Unlike other diodes, the fast recovery diode is the one that can switch off a reverse current very quickly.
Fast Time-Constant Circuit
An anti jamming device used in radar voice amplifier circuits. It differentiates incoming pulses so that only the leading edge of the pulses are used.
A defect in a circuit or component resulting in its malfunctioning.
Fault Current
Fault current is the abnormal current that flows in the circuit in the failure condition which will be several times larger in magnitude than the normal expected current.
Fault Indicator
A component or device that gives intimation about any kind of failure in the system being monitored either visually or remotely.
Fault Tolerance
The ability of a system to continue the regular functionality even after any software or hardware failure occurs.
See Fiber Distributed Data Interface.
The process in which the output/processed output of an action of any system is fed-back to the same system along with the input in order to change the next action.
The unintentional transfer of a signal from one track to another on a multitrack tape.
Feed-Through Capacitor
A feed through insulator that provides a desired value of capacitance between the feed through conductor and the metal chassis or panel through which the conductor is passing. Used for bypass purpose in UHF.
Female Contact
A type of contact that accepts its mating part within it in order to establish electrical interface between two distinct objects.
See Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene.
A group of non metallic compound of ferric oxide combined with other oxides that have high electrical resistivity.
Ferrite Bead
A passive component or a type of choke used to limit high frequency noises.
Ferrite Switch
A switch that rotates the electrical field by 90 degree thus blocking the energy flowing through a wave guide.
Ferromagnetic Material
A type of highly magnetic material that can be permanently magnetized. Ex: Iron, nickel etc.
A short metal ring/tube that is used to make crimp connection to shielded/coaxial cables thus securing the joints.
See Field Effect Transistor.
Fiber Channel
Fibre Channel is a hardware path using fiber as net for transmitting data between computer devices.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
An ANSI and ISO standard protocol for transmitting digital data over fiber optic cable in LAN network distancing up to 124 miles. FDDI as defined in ISO 9314-1/2/3.
Fiber Optic Cable
A cable made up of super-thin filaments of glass or other transparent materials for long distance and very high bandwidth (gigabit speed) network communications at the speed of light.
Fiber Optic Connector
A type of connector made to terminate the end of optic fiber cable and join two fiber connections without the need of splicing.
Fiber Optic Link
A communication link that transmits and receives information via a fiber optic cable.
Fiber Optics
Fiber Optics is a technology that uses thin thread like structures called fibers made up of glass or plastic to provide a hardware path to transmit large amount of data in the form and speed of light.
Fibrous Braid
An outer non metallic protective cover that protects the conductor and its insulating material.
Field Effect Transistor
A type of transistor in which the most current flown in a channel whose effective resistance can be controlled by a transverse electric field that are normally used to amplify weak signals.
Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
A synthetic type of insulation that actually is a copolymer of hexafluoropropylene and tetrafluoroethylene.
Forward bias
Biasing is such an arrangement made in the PN junction device so that the device allows the flow of larger current in one direction. The device is said to be forward biased if the anode is connected to the positive end and cathode is connected to the negative end of the battery.
Frequency response
Frequency Response is the input/output ratio of an amplifier or any other device as a function of frequency over a frequency range.


See Gallium Arsenide.
See Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistor.
Gain is the capacity of the circuit to increase the strength of the input signal. The gain is measured by the ratio of the magnitude of the output signal to that of the input signal.
Gain Block
A single stage of gain or a cascaded series of gain stages.
Gain-Bandwidth Product
The Gain-Bandwidth of the circuit (usually amplifier) is the product of the bandwidth and the gain at which the bandwidth is measured. For an operational amplifier, the gain-bandwidth product for one configuration will always equal the gain-bandwidth product for any other configuration of the same amplifier.
Gallium Arsenide
A semiconductor compound consisting of Gallium [Ga] and Arsenic [As]. GaAs is normally used with high power or high frequency components such as infrared light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, solar cells and optical windows.
Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistor
A semiconductor voltage controlled device that is made up of GaAs as a semiconductor material which is specially made to use in those circuits that are made to work with very-high, ultra-high, and microwave radio frequencies.
Galvanic Isolation
Galvanic isolation is a design technique to isolate the functional section of electrical circuit in order to eliminate any stray currents.
An instrument used to measure/detect small electric currents with the mechanical motion obtained from the electromagnetic forces induced by current.
A unit of magnetic intensity equal to 10-5 oersted.
Ganged Tuning
The art of tuning more than one circuit simultaneously.
An error that is caused while transmitting or receiving that inturn results in incorrect information.
Gas Discharge Tube
A gas or vapour filled tube that is used to conduct electricity when voltage is applied.
Gas Filled Tube
Gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope. Discharge tube is a closed insulating vessel containing a gas at low pressure through which an electric current flows when sufficient voltage is applied to its electrodes.
A mechanical jointing material that is used as a seal which fills any space between matched machine parts or pipes thus preventing any leakages.
Gate terminal is one of the three terminals of the FET that is used as the control terminal which when charged creates a field that changes the conductivity of the channel turning the FET on/off.
Gate array
Gate array is a semicustom IC consisting of a regular arrangement of gates that are interconnected through one or more layers of metal to provide custom functions. Generally, gate arrays are pre-processed up to the first interconnect level so they can be quickly processed with final metal to meet a customer's specified function.
Gate Pulse
The pulse is a trigger given to the gate circuit to allow the signal to pass.
Gate Terminal
Gate Terminal is a lead in FET which acts as a control terminal.
Gate Turn-off Thyristor
Unlike Thyristor, A GTO is a four layer (PNPN) switching device that is used in power electronic circuit that can be turned on/off by applying a short gate pulse/reverse gate pulse to it.
Gated AGC
The Gated AGC is used to "roughly" normalize the volume level so that the audio has an approximated constant volume level. This circuit permits automatic gain control to function only during short time intervals.
Gated-Beam Detector
Gated-Beam Detector is also known as quadrature detector, It uses a gated-beam tube to limit, detect, and amplify the received fm signal.
Applying a rectangular voltage to the grid or the cathode of a cathode ray tube to sensitize it during the sweep time only.
Gauge refers to the thickness of a sheet of material or cross sectional area (diameter) for a wire.
Gaussian Noise
A type of noise whose probability density function is same as that of the normal frequency distribution.
Gender Changer
A type of hardware adaptor that has same type of connectors with same gender at its both ends.
A machine that produces electrical energy utilizing the mechanical energy.
A brittle greyish-white metalloid element that possess the properties of a semiconductor. Denoted as Ge in the modern periodic table.
Germanium Photodiode
A diode that can convert light into either current or voltage using germanium PN junction.
See Gate Turn-off Thyristor.


Half Adder
A combinational logic circuit that can be used to add two bits resulting their sum and carry.
A mode of data transmission in which at a given time the data can either be sent or received but not both.
Half-Power Point
A point in the performance characteristics of a device which is at almost half the level of the maximum value.
Half-wave Dipole
A special case of the dipole antenna in which the length of the dipole antenna is equal to a half wavelength at the frequency of operation.
Half-Wave Rectifier
A rectifying circuit that converts only one half of the input alternating current into the pulsating direct current while ignoring the other half.
Half-Wave Voltage Doubler
A transformerless half wave rectifier circuit that gives output approximately double than that of the input voltage.
Hall Effect
A phenomenon in which electric field is produced a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field whose direction is perpendicular to both the direction of the current and the magnetic field . Hall effect Sensors.
Hall Effect Device
Any device that works on Hall effect principle. Ex: Hall effect sensors are a type of proximity sensor that generates voltage in response to the proximity of a magnetic field.
A command that is used to stop an operation either permanently or temporarily.
Hamming Code
A linear error detecting and correcting codes for telecommunication that can detect up to two simultaneous bit errors and can correct only single-bit errors.
Hamming Weight
A string of non-zero symbol of the alphabet used.
Handshacking is a exchange of predetermined signals for control purposes during establishment of a connection between two data sets or modems.
A process in communication in which two devices before sending actual information will exchange several signals back and forth to come to an agreement on communications protocol and so on, the back and forth signals are Hand Shake signals. Ex: handshaking can be heard in the various sounds that are made by a modem when dialling a call from a computer.
Hard Copy
A copy of any thing on a physical object.
Hard Disk Controller
The hard disk controller is a circuit/chip in the HDD that controls the disk based on the instruction given to it by the processor. In other words, the controller enables the CPU to communicate with HDD.
Hard Disk/Hard Disk Drive
A physical storage device that is used store large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces and provides relatively quick access to the stored data.
Hard-Tube is a high vacuum electron tube.
A hardware is any physical component or assembled system that is meant to perform certain function in contrast to the software loaded.
Hardware Interrupt
Hardware interrupt is a signal received by the program from any of the variety of hardware devices like a keyboard, printer etc, letting the program know that it needs the processors attention on more priority than the currently executing operation.
Harmonic is a sinusoidal wave having a frequency integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.
Harmonic Distortion
Harmonic distortion is produced by the harmonic frequencies at the output by the nonlinearity of the transducer when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to the input.
Wires and cables arranged and tied together so they can be connected and disconnected as a unit.
Hartley Oscillator
Hartley Oscillator is an LC oscillator using two inductors and one capacitor in the tank circuit.
Hay Bridge
Maxwell Bridge is an AC bridge that uses capacitors and resistors to determine the value of an unknown inductor and high quality factor (Q<10) of the circuit.
See Hard Disk/Hard Disk Drive.
See High-level Data Link Control.
See Half-Duplex.
High-level Data Link Control
A transmission protocol operates at the layer 2 of the OSI model. This HDLC protocol embeds information in a data frame allowing data flow control and error correction.
High-level language
A programming language that almost machine independent and enables the user to use English like words in it for writing programs.
An hole is a positively charged sub atomic particle that travels around the nucleus of an atom carrying a charge of approximately 1.602 × 10^19 coulombs with mass of 9.1066 × 10-28 grams. Electrons are considered to be the acting as the primary carrier of electric current.
Hybrid circuit
A miniaturized electronic circuit that is made using more than one type of components like active, passive etc. Over s single PCB or a IC in order to perform a specific function.


See Input/Output.
I2C is a 2 Wire serial bus protocol. This protocol enables peripheral Ic's to communicate with each other using simple communication hardware.
See Integrated Injection Logic.
I2R Loss
I2R Loss is a power loss in an electrical device, such as a transformer which is caused by the flow of a current through a resistance R.
See Integrated Circuit
IC Synchros
IC Synchros refers to interior communication synchros. Synchros with reverse rotation and limited torque capabilities.
See Insulation Displacement Connector.
See Integrated Drive Electronics.
Idempotent Law
In Boolean algebra, Idempotent Law states that combining a quantity with itself either by logical addition or logical multiplication will result in a logical sum or product that is the equivalent of the quantity (ex- A + A = A; A x A = A).
Identity Comparator
It is a circuit that compares two binary numbers. It is also known as digital comparator or magnitude comparator.
Identity Law
In Boolean algebra, Identity Law states that the sum of zero and any number or variable is the number or variable itself and the product of 1 and any number or variable is the number or variable itself (ex - A + 0 = A ; A . 1 = A ).
Idle-Channel Noise
Noise that is present in a communications channel when signals are not applied to the channel.
Idler Frequency
In a parametric amplifier, the difference between the input signal and the pump signal frequency; it is called an idler frequency since, in conventional parametric amplifiers, it is more or less a useless by-product of the parametric process.
IEEE-1284 is a defined standard for high speed bidirectional parallel communication between the PC and external peripherals. IEEE 1284 is available with five different functional modes that allow devices to transfer data in the following directions, forward direction (computer to peripheral), backward direction (peripheral to computer), or bi-directional (one direction at a time).
IF Amplifier
IF Amplifier is a selective high gain amplifier used in superheterodyne receivers that amplifies signals after they have been converted to the fixed intermediate-frequency value by the frequency converter.
IF Bandwidth
IF Bandwidth is a range of frequencies centered around the IF frequency, limited by the 3dB amplitude points.
IF Frequency
IF Frequency is a frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception. It is the output of the mixer where IF frequency is created by mixing the carrier signal with a Local oscillator signal.
IF Selectivity
IF Selectivity is ability of the IF stages to receive the wanted signal and reject unwanted signals in adjacent channels. IF Selectivity is measured in decibels.
See Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor.
See Insulated Gate Field-Effect Transistor.
IM Distortion
IM Distortion stands for Intermodulation Distortion, is the amplitude modulation of signals containing two or more different frequencies in a system with nonlinearities.
Image Frequency
In wireless systems using heterodyne tuning systems, Image Frequency is an undesired carrier frequency that differs from the frequency to which a superheterodyne receiver is tuned by twice the intermediate frequency.
Image processing
A technique of analyzing, enhancing and improving the quality of a digitized image with the help of a computer and a sophisticated software.
Image Rejection
Image Rejection is a measure of a receiver's ability to reject signals at its image frequency which is the sum or difference of the tuners oscillator and IF signals.
Impedance (Z) is the effective resistance offered by any electric circuit or component to the flow of alternating current through it. The effective resistance is a combined effect of the ohmic resistance together with the reactance (X) which may be capacitive reactance (Xc) or the Inductive reactance (Xl). Given by Z=R+jX.
Impedance Bridge
Impedance Bridge is also called as “universal bridge” measures the values of Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor, Dissipation factor and Quality factor.
Impedance Matching
Impedance Matching is a technique of electric circuit to transmit power from one circuit to other impedance should be matching.
Implosion opposite of explosion. Implosion is sudden inward collapse.
Impulse is a short surge of electrical, magnetic, or electromagnetic energy.
Impulse Noise
Impulse noise is a random occurrences of energy spikes, irregular pulses or noise "spikes" of short duration, broad spectral density, and relatively high amplitude.
Impulse Waveform
Impulse Waveform is a irregular pulses "spikes" of short duration.
Incandescent is a process of emitting light by heating up the filament.
Incandescent Light Bulb
Incandescent Light Bulb that emits light.
Incident Wave
Incident Wave is a current or voltage wave that is travelling through a transmission line in the direction from source to load.
In-Circuit Meter
Some electronic devices have meters built into them called In-circuit meters. These meters are used to monitor the operation of equipment (ex-generator or alternator meter on some automobiles).
Incoherent is the waves having the same frequency but not the same phase. Ordinary light that is seen every day, such as sunlight or electric light, is not coherent because each source of light comes from individual atoms.
A port or a pin in a device that is meant to interface with the external world either by taking the real time inputs from outside and display the processed data on to a display channel.
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
A four layered three terminal power semiconductor device which is actually a combination of power MOS transistor and a thyristor providing the device the advantages of both i.e. high efficiency and fast switching. It is designed to use with high voltages as it can be prepared with significantly lower values of RDS(on) than compared to a MOSFET of same die size.
Insulated Gate Field-Effect Transistor
A type of FET whose gate is insulated from the channel by a thin layer, usually consisting of a metal oxide. All MOSFETs are IGFETs.
Insulation Displacement Connector
An electrical connector that strips off the insulation of the wire to make contact with it. The wire is pushed into the connector with a punch down tool.
Any material or object that does not conduct, i.e. that doesn't allow the current to pass through its body.
Integrated Circuit
A tiny piece of semiconducting material on which millions of electronic discrete components are embedded and interconnected that can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory.
Integrated Drive Electronics
A standard electronic interface used between a computer motherboard's data paths or bus and the computer's disk storage devices. The IDE interface is also known as the ATA interface.
Integrated Injection Logic
In a Logic family, Integrated Injection Logic is a class of digital circuits built with several collector BJT to achieve high-density large-scale integration.
Intelligent DiscreteTM
A advanced power MOSFET that contains more than one active device and thus can provide functionalities conventional power MOSFET along with the monitoring capabilities(like current monitoring, thermal monitoring etc…).
Intelligent Power ICTM
A integrated circuit that has multiple functionalities like power, analogue and logic are integrated with it.
Inverse Feedback Counter
See Johnson Counter.


J1850 is a standard that establishes the requirements for a Class B Data Communication Network Interface applicable to all On and Off-Road Land-Based Vehicles.
Jabber is an open, secure technology for instant messaging based on Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP).
A Jack is a female connector that can be inserted into a plug in order to make connection in an electric circuit. It is also called as socket or receptacle.
Jack Screw
Jack Screw is a screw-operated jack for lifting, exerting pressure, or adjusting position. jackscrew's commonly used to lift heavy weights such as the foundations of houses, or large vehicles.
Jacket is a the outermost layer of cable that protects the conductor core from external physical forces and chemical deterioration.
Jacketed Cable
Jacketed Cable is a bundle of wires that are covered with insulating materials such as plastic, PVC etc.
Jam Nut
Jam nuts are the low profile nuts that are typically half the height of a standard nut. It is used as locknut that is jammed against the work surface and used where a standard nut would not fit.
See Just-a-Bunch-Of-Disks.
See Joint Electron Device Engineering Council.
See Junction Field Effect Transistor.
Jitter is the variation of the clock period from edge to edge or Jitter is the small variations of a signal w.r.t its ideal position in time.
Jitter Tolerance
Jitter Tolerance is a measure of jitter that a system could tolerate before an errors occur.
JK Flip Flop
JK Flip Flop is a flip flop which consists of a few logic gates in front of a D-flip flop. A JK flip-flop is also called a universal flip-flop because it can be configured to work as an SR flip-flop, D flip-flop or T flip-flop.
Johnson Counter
Johnson counter is a modified ring counter in which the output from the last flip flop is inverted and fed back as an input to the first. It is also called as Inverse Feedback Counter or Twisted Ring Counter.
Johnson Noise
Johnson Noise refers to "thermal noise" or "white noise" caused due to random motion of electrons.
Joint Electron Device Engineering Council
A Council that publishes open standards and publications for integrated circuit and semiconductor industry that are accepted throughout the world and are free and open to all.
Joint Test Action Group
The common name for IEEE as Std 1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture is used to Build test facilities/test points into chips.
Joule is the unit of measure for energy or work done used in the International System of Units (SI). Joule is equal to the work done by a force of one Newton through a distance of one meter (1 joule [J] = 1 Newton meter [N·m]).
Joystick is a cursor control device used in computer games and assistive technology that translates physical movement into electrical signals which are finally converted into mathematical (a binary string of 1’s and 0’s) by computational units.
See Joint Test Action Group
A small metal connector with two wires and a small piece of metal that is used to close or open part of an electrical circuit.
Junction in which two materials featuring distinctly different electrical properties are in contact, e.g. p-n junction and metal-semiconductor junction (contact).
Junction Box
Junction Box is an enclosure containing a junction of electric wires or cables. Junction Boxes are used to protect the connections and provide easy access to them.
Junction Diode
Junction diode is a semiconductor with n and p type materials that are chemically combined, forms a junction that allows conduction in one direction only.
Junction field effect transistor
A simple voltage controlled semiconductor device or a FET that conducts between source to drain on applying a voltage to the gate terminal.
Junction Transistor
Junction Transistor is constructed from interacting PN junctions. There are two types of junction transistors: UJT and BJT. UJT - The current conduction due to one type of carriers; BJT- The current conduction in bipolar transistor is because of both the type of charge carriers, holes and electrons.
A collection of drives used, but are not in a RAID (redundant array of independent disks) configuration.


K Band
K band is a portion in the electromagnetic spectrum of frequencies ranging between 18GHz to 26.5GHz.
Kalman filter
The Kalman filter is also known as linear quadratic estimation.
Karnaugh Map
Karnaugh Map is a graphical method which gives a systematic and step by step approach for simplifying a Boolean expression. This map method was proposed by veitch and modified by karnaugh, hence it is known as Veitch diagram or Karnaugh map.
Kilocycle is a unit equal to 1000 cycles. KC is used as an informal name for kilohertz.
Keep-Alive Voltage
A DC voltage that maintains a small glow discharge within one of the gap electrode or tube. This allows the tube to ionize more rapidly when the transmitter fires, preventing damage to the receiver.
Keep-Out is the area on a printed wiring board that can't be used due to thermal management, cooling, and mounting constraints.
Kelvin is a unit of temperature
Kernel is a program that constitutes the central core of a computer OS.
Key Clicks
Key Clicks are the interference caused due to sudden application and removal of power with rapid surges of current. This interference is present in the form of "clicks" or "thumps".
Key Switch
A switch that can be actuated only by a insertion of a removable key. This keys are commonly used in locking and unlocking manually operated railroad switches.
Keyboard is a peripheral device that is used as data input for a computer.
Keycap is a small plastic cap placed over the switch, which is pressed to actuate the switch.
Key-Click Filters
Key-Click Filters are used in the keying systems of continuous wave transmitter to prevent interference.
Keyed-Oscillator Transmitter
Keyed-Oscillator Transmitter is a transmitter in which one stage is used to produce the RF pulse.
Keyer is a device that turns an electronic circuit on or off.
Keying Relays
Keying relays are used for safety and to handle the current requirements in high-power transmitters.
Kilo is a SI unit prefix meaning 1000 or 10^3.
Kilowatt hour is a unit of energy. 1 kWh is defined as 1kilo watts of power acting over a period of 1 hour.
Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is a energy possessed by an object due to its motion or movement. The kinetic energy of an object depends mainly on two factors: mass (m) and velocity (v). Where, KE = 1/2 *m*v^2.
Kirchhoff's Laws
Kirchhoff's Laws consisting of two laws which is necessary for solving circuit problems. Kirchhoff's first Law states that "The algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero", it is also called as Kirchhoff's current law or Kirchhoff's junction rule (or nodal rule). Kirchhoff's second Law states that "the algebraic sum of the voltages across any set of branches in a closed loop is zero", it is also called as Kirchhoff's voltage law or Kirchhoff's loop (or mesh) rule.
Klystron Power Amplifier
Klystron Power Amplifier is an amplifier with high power linear beam vacuum tubes used at high frequencies such as radar, satellite and wideband high-power communication, medicine and high energy physics.
Knee of the Curve
Knee of the Curve is the point of maximum curvature of a magnetization curve where saturation occurs.
Knife Switch
Knife Switch is a type of switch made up of hinge that allows a metal lever, to be lifted from or inserted into a slot or jaw.
Knob is a round hand grippable component attached to a shaft to allow the shaft to be turned that helps to control a switch or a dial.
Knurled Knob
A Knurled Knob is a series of small beads or ridges on the surface of knob to aid in gripping the part or provide a texture to the part.
See Kilowatt-hour.


L Band
L band is a portion in the electromagnetic spectrum of frequencies ranging between 1GHz to 2GHz.
Ladder is a circuit structure using components connected in a chain.
Ladder Attenuator
A series of symmetrical sections used in signal generators and other devices in which voltages and current must be reduced in known ratios.
Ladder Diagram
A diagram that shows actual component symbols and the basic wiring configuration of a relay logic circuit.
Ladder filter
Ladder filter is a type of passive filter composed of series and shunt reactive elements forming a ladder.
A time difference between occurrence of two events.
Lagging Current
Lagging current is an alternating current which reaches its maximum value later in the cycle than the voltage which is producing it.
Lagging Load
A predominantly inductive load, one in which current lags the voltage.
Laminate is a product made by bonding together two or more layers of material.
Laminated Core
An iron core for a coil, transformer, armature etc. It is built up from laminations to maximize the effect of eddy currents.
A lamp is an electrical component that produces light from electricity.
Lamp Driver
Lamp Driver is a small integrated circuit designed to supply the current required by a lamp. It manages the incoming voltage and current to the voltage and current level requirements of the lamp.
See Local Area Network.
Bonding points used in the manufacturing of microelectronic circuits.
A device that is attached to certain quick disconnect connectors that permits uncoupling and separation of connector halves by a pull on a wire or cable.
Lap Splice
Lap Splice is a permanent joint formed by the connecting of two or more conductors.
Lap Winding
Lap Winding is a form of two-layer winding for electric machines in which each coil is connected in series with the one adjacent to it. lap winding is used for high current and low voltage machines.
Large-Scale Integration
One of the level in the process of miniaturization of the integrated circuits in which 100 and 5000 gate equivalents, or 1000 to 16,000 bits of memory have been integrated on to a single chip (IC).
LASER is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. An optical source that generates coherent light within a narrow band of wavelengths.
A latch is a sequential device that is used to store information which checks all of its inputs continuously, it changes its output accordingly at any time independent of a clock signal.
Latching Switch
Latching Switch is a switch that remains in its present position until pushed again. It is also know as pulsating switch.
The characteristics of some op amps to remain in positive or negative saturation after their maximum differential input voltage exceeded.
In programming, Latency is a measure of time between the start of the tasks execution till the end of the task.
Lattice Filter
Lattice filter is a filter composed of four branches in series to form a mesh.
Law of Magnetism
The basic Law of Magnetism states that like magnetic poles repel each other where as unlike magnetic poles attract each other.
Layout Versus Schemati
A software that is used to compare the electrical schematic and the layout in order to ensure that the particular integrated circuit layout is in accordance with the circuit schematic.
LC Capacitor-Input Filter
LC Capacitor-Input Filter is a capacitor filter followed by an LC filter. The three components are arranged in shape of Greek letter Pi, so it is also called as pie filter or CLC filter. This filter is used for the low current equipment’s.
LC Choke-Input Filter
LC Choke-Input Filter is also called as LC filter or inductor input filter. LC Filter is a combination of inductor and capacitor filter used primarily in power supplies where voltage regulation is important and where the output current is relatively high and subject to varying load conditions.
LC Circuit
As the name implies, an LC circuit is a circuit that uses the elements inductor (L) and capacitor ( C). This circuit is also referred as resonating circuit, tank circuit, or tuned circuit.
See Leadless Chip Carrier.
Leadless Chip Carrier
A surface mount packaging type with either plastic or ceramic which uses metal pads in order to establish contact with socket or pcb.
See Light-Emitting Diode.
Light-Emitting Diode
A semiconductor material that is doped with calculate amount of impurities to make a PN junction that is capable of emitting visible radiations of almost any colour under forward biased condition.
Linear integrated circuit
An integrated circuit that produces output that vary in accordance with the input signal.
Local Area Network
LAN stands for Local Area Network. LAN is a network that covers relatively small area (e.g. office building, schools etc), which a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link.
LOCalized Oxidation Of Silicon
A process in the fabrication technology in which silicon dioxide is allowed to be formed on the selected surface of silicon wafer having the Si-SiO2 interface.
See LOCalized Oxidation Of Silicon.
Logic is a collection of circuit elements that perform a function, especially a set of elements that use digital logic and perform Boolean logic functions.
Logic analyzer
Logic Analyzer is a instrument used to display multiple logic levels/signals from a digital system/circuit. It may convert the data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or even correlate assembly with source-level software.
Logic synthesis
Logic synthesis is a process by which an abstract form of desired circuit behaviour typically register transfer level (RTL) or behavioural is turned into a design implementation in terms of logic gates. This process includes synthesis of HDLs, including VHDL and Verilog.
Logic-level MOSFET
A MOSFET that has the ability to work on the logic output received form the mcu eliminating the need of buffers.
Low-capacitance probe
A Probe with very low input capacitance usually used in handling with high frequency signals as it doesn't present significant capacitive loading.
See Large-Scale Integration.
See Layout Versus Schemati.


Machine Language
Machine language is a low level language that is directly understandable by the computer. Machine language runs very fast and it requires no translator to translate the code.
Machine Tool Transformer
Machine Tool Transformer is also called a control transformer and is generally used in an electronic circuit that requires constant voltage or constant current with a low power or volt-amp rating. A machine tool transformer is equipped with a fuse or other over-current protection device.
Magic-T Junction
Magic-T Junction is a four port waveguide junction or it is a combination of E-plane and H-plane Tee.
Magnet Wire
Magnet Wire also known as a winding wire is an insulated electrical conductor, usually copper or aluminium used in motors, transformers, and other electromagnetic equipment. When wound into a coil and energized, magnet wire creates an electromagnetic field for use in energy transformation as well as a wide range of communications applications and products such as computers, telephones, cell phones, video games, and televisions.
Magnetic Amplifier
Magnetic Amplifier is an electromagnetic device for amplifying electrical signals that is used for controlling the flow of power to a load by means of saturating a magnetic core.
Magnetic Circuit
Magnetic circuit is a closed path of magnetic flux.
Magnetic Field
Magnetic Fields are produced by electric currents. The standard SI unit for magnetic field is the Tesla.
Magnetic Flux
Magnetic Flux is a measure of strength of magnetic field passing through a given surface. The SI unit of magnetic flux is the Weber and CGS unit is Maxwell.
Magnetic Head
A high precision electromagnet that is used to write/read from a magnetic storage media by converting electrical variations into magnetic variations(Write operation) and converting magnetic variations in the magnetic media back into electrical signals(Read operation) respectively.
Magnetic Hysteresis Loop
If an alternating magnetic field is applied to the material, its magnetization will trace out a loop called a magnetic hysteresis loop. Magnetic hysteresis loop shows the relationship between the induced magnetic flux density and the magnetizing force. It is also called as B-H loop.
Magnetic induction
Magnetic induction is a process by which a material becomes magnetized by an external magnetic field. It is a vector quantity used as a measure of a magnetic field.
Magnetic Lines of Force
Magnetic Lines of Force is a an imaginary line representing the direction of magnetic field such that the tangent at any point is the direction of the field vector at that point.
Magnetic Microphone
Magnetic Microphone is a microphone consisting of a diaphragm acted upon by sound waves and connected to an armature which varies the reluctance in a magnetic field surrounded by a coil.
Magnetic Poles
Magnetic Poles is a portion of magnet where the flux lines are concentrated usually at opposite ends of a magnet.
Magnetic Trip Element
Magnetic Trip Element make use of electromagnet. It is a circuit breaker trip element that uses the increasing magnetic attraction of a coil with increased current to open the circuit.
Magnetism is a force of attraction or repulsion between various substances.
Magnetron Oscillator
An electron tube in which electrons are accelerated by a radial electric field between the cathode and one or more anodes and by an axial magnetic field that provides a high energy electron stream to excite the tank circuit.
Magnitude Comparator
Magnitude Comparator are digital circuits which have two ports which accept and have three single bit outputs. It is used to comparing individual bits, multi-bit comparators can be constructed to compare whole BCD words to produce an output if one word is larger, equal to or less than the other.
Main Lobe
Main lobe is the lobe of the radiation pattern of a directional antenna which contains the direction of maximum radiation. This is the lobe that exhibits the greatest field strength. It is also called as main beam.
For an electrical switch or relay, Make-Before-Break means makes the new connection before it breaks the previous connection, so the centre contact is momentarily connected to both contacts.
Manchester Encoding
In data transmission, Manchester code is a binary encoding which also encodes the clock signal.
The RS232 defines two states for the data signals: logic 1 and logic 0. The high level or logic1one state refers to mark.
Marking refers to how a component or a device is marked with a part number, date code, and place of manufacture.
In a logical operation, Masking is a process in which only required data is retained and the rest is blocked, it can be done using bitwise operators.
Mask ROM
A regular ROM produced by usual masking process.
Master Oscillator
An oscillator that controls or provides modulator drive frequencies for a number of channels or channel groups.
Master Oscillator Power Amplifier
An oscillator followed by a radio frequency buffer amplifier stage.
Master-Slave Flip Flop
Master-Slave Flip Flop is a type of clocked flip-flop consisting of master and slave elements that are clocked on complementary transitions of the clock signal.
Master-Slave Timing
In a communications system or a computer network, a timing system in which one station or node supplies the timing reference for all other interconnected stations or nodes.
Matched Load
Matched Load is a device used to terminate a transmission line or waveguide so that all the energy from the signal source will be absorbed.
Matching Transformer
A transformer used for matching impedances.
Maximal Length Sequence
Maximal Length Sequence is a type of pseudo-random sequence of length P = 2N – 1, where N is an integer and P is the periodicity.
Maximum Clock Frequency
Maximum Clock Frequency is a highest frequency at which the clock input of a IC can be drive, while maintaining proper operation. It is denoted by fmax.
Maximum Limit
Maximum Limit is a highest-magnitude limit of a range of some quantity.
Maximum Power Dissipation
Maximum Power Dissipation indicates a component's maximum capability to transfer and conduct this power loss without overheating. power dissipation and is measured in Watts.
Maximum Ratings
Maximum operating characteristics a device will operate at without deterioration or destruction, at some operating temperature.
Maximum Safe Operating Area
Maximum Safe Operating Area of a power device describes maximum ability to handle voltage and current simultaneously while the gate voltage is at or just above threshold.
Maximum Usable Frequency
In radio transmission by ionospheric reflection, the highest frequency that can be transmitted by reflection from regular ionized layer.
In Boolean expression, Maxterm is a sum of literals in which every input variable appears once and only once.
The CGS electronic unit of magnetic flux, equal to 1 guass per square centimetre.
Maxwell Bridge
Maxwell Bridge is a type of Wheatstone bridge that uses capacitors and resistors to determine the value of an unknown inductor and low quality factor of the circuit.
See MOS Controlled Thyristor.
See Microcontroller.
See Mixed Domain Oscilloscope.
Medium-Scale Integration
One of the level in the process of miniaturization of the integrated circuits in which 10 and 1000 gate equivalents, 1024 bits of memory have been integrated on to a single chip (IC).
MegaFET is a term used by Intersil to describe our latest generation of power MOSFETs that provide a cell density of 1.9 million cells per square inch. MegaFETs are available for voltages as high as 1200V and provide on-resistance values as low as 10 milliohm.
A hardware unit that has the capacity to hold the data or the information in it either for immediate retrieval or to preserve in it for a long time.
Memory integrated circuit
An IC that has the memory cells to store the data/information in it and also has other circuits that are needed to access the stored data like address selection circuits, amplification circuits etc.
See Metal–Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor.
Metal Oxide Semiconductor
A waver process in fabrication that uses metallic oxide(silicon dioxide) as a insulating layer.
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
A voltage controlled device which controls the flow of current with an applied voltage.
Metal-Oxide Varistor
A varistor or variable resistor or a voltage dependent resistor is two terminal semiconductor device that has a non linear resistance characteristics that is dependent on the voltage. A varistor is commonly used to protect an electrical circuit against the excessive transient over voltage causing in reverse direction.
Metal–Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
A type of Field effect transistor that has the channel right beneath the metal gate which is the intimate contact with the semiconductor.
A fully functional system/unit, just as a computer consisting of I/O devices, CPU, memory units and all the required peripherals.
A highly integrated chip in which a processor, memory, I/O peripherals, timer/counter, communication ports etc are integrated on a single chip.
A processor or a CPU that has all the circuitry required to perform arithmetic, logical and control task integrated on a single chip. Any peripherals are to be connected and interfaced externally.
A unit that is used to measure and represent length and is equal to one thousandth (10-3) of an inch (0.0254 millimetre) that is most commonly used to indicate the thickness of a metal sheet, diameter of a wire etc.
Mixed Domain Oscilloscope
A type of digital oscilloscope has three kinds of inputs, a small number analogue channels, a larger number digital channels, and one RF channel. It combines an RF spectrum analyzer with a MSO to correlate views of signals from the digital, analogue and RF domains.
Mixed Signal Oscilloscope
A form of Digital Oscilloscope with larger viewing channels capable of viewing both analogue and digital signals together.
See Master Oscillator Power Amplifier.
See Metal Oxide Semiconductor.
MOS Controlled Thyristor
MOS-controlled thyristor is a voltage-controlled fully controllable thyristor in which a very thin metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit in the top surface of the high-power thyristor components, so that only a small gate current is needed to turn the entire device off or on.
MOS transistor
MOSFET are sometimes called as MOS transistor, is a voltage controlled device which controls the flow of current with an applied voltage.
See Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor.
See Metal-Oxide Varistor.
See Microprocessor.
See Medium-Scale Integration.
See Mixed Signal Oscilloscope.
Multilayer TVS
A varistor that is made up of alternating layer of semiconductor (ceramic) and electrode material that greatly enhances the current handling abilities of the device.
A semiconductor device that has the ability to combine more than one input signals into one and transmits over a shared channel at a greater speed such that the combined signals can be subsequently recovered into individuals by doing a reverse engineering method(de-multiplexing).
A process in which more than one analogue signal or digital data streams are combined as one signal and transmitted over a common shared channel at a much greater speed.
An analogue circuit that intakes two signals and results the product of the two signals at the output.
See Multiplexer.


NAND is a logical function in which the output is FALSE ('0' or LOW) if and only if both the inputs are FALSE('0' or LOW) .
NAND Circuit
In a Binary circuit, NAND circuit is a combination of NOT function and an AND function in which the output is FALSE('0' or LOW) if and only if both the inputs are FALSE('0' or LOW).
In a Digital electronics, NAND gate is a logic gate in which the output is FALSE('0' or LOW) if and only if both the inputs are FALSE('0' or LOW).
Nano is a unit prefix in the SI system refers to one billionth, or 10 e-9. The symbol for Nano is 'n'.
Narrow Band Amplifier
Narrow Band Amplifier is an amplifier designed for optimum operation over a narrow band of frequencies.
Narrow Band FM
Narrow Band FM is a FM signal that only uses a small portion of a normal FM channel. Narrowband FM mainly used in two-way wireless communications.
Narrowband Signal
Narrowband Signal is an optical signal or an electronic signal, that has a spectral composition, i.e., a frequency spectrum, that is limited to a narrow band.
N-ary Code
N-ary Code is a code that has n significant conditions, where n is a positive integer greater than one.
Natural Frequency
Natural Frequency is the lowest resonant frequency of an antenna, circuit, or component.
N-Channel FET
N-Channel FET is a voltage controlled device where only one type of charge carrier (electrons) carry current in N channel FET's.
Near End
Near End is the originating side of a circuit.
Near Synchronous Orbit
Near Synchronous Orbit is a spatial relation in which an object orbits a massive body but not exactly at the same speed.
Near-End Crosstalk
Near-End Crosstalk is a type of interference between two pairs in a cable measured at near end of the cable as the interfering transmitter.
In Boolean algebra, Negate means complement.
Negation refers to complement of logical expression
Negative Alteration
Negative alternation is a variation which occurs during the time the sine wave is negative.
Negative Bias
Negative Bias is a voltage applied to an electrode of an electronic device which is negative with respect to ground.
Negative Clamper
Negative Clamper is a circuit that conducts during the positive half cycle.
Negative Electrode
The cathode is the negatively charged electrode in an electrolytic cell.
Negative Feedback
Negative Feedback is also called as Degenerative feedback in which the feedback signal is out of phase with the input signal.
Negative Logic
Negative Logic is a logical circuitry in which higher voltage level refers to LOW ('0' or FALSE) and Lower voltage level refers to HIGH('1' or TRUE)
Negative Temperature Coefficient
Negative Temperature Coefficient is a process of decrease in resistance value with the increase in temperature
Negative-Resistance is a property of some elements and electric circuits which an increase in the applied voltage increases the resistance, producing a proportional decrease in current.
Negative-Resistance Element
Negative-Resistance Element is an element having an operating region in which an increase in the applied voltage increases the resistance, producing a proportional decrease in current.
Neon is a colourless, odourless inert gaseous element used in electric lamps, tubes or signs.
Neon Bulb
Neon Bulb is a moulded glass tube or bulb filled with a low-pressure neon gas and lights up when a voltage is applied to the terminals of bulb.
A common practice in programming in which one object is repetitively occurs within another object of the same type.
An ASCII file that describes the electrical connectivity of a design schematic specifying the list of elements and their connectivity. It may also contain the attribute information.
An interconnection of computer systems, terminals or data communications facilities.
Network Architecture
Network architecture is the logical and structural layout of the network consisting of transmission equipment, software and communication protocols and infrastructure (wired or wireless) transmission of data and connectivity between components.
Network Interface Card
An interface card that is used to provide a hardware interface between personal computer to an Ethernet network
Neutral is neither positive or negative
Neutralization is the process of counteracting or "neutralizing" the effects of interelectrode capacitance.
Newton's Second Law of Motion
Newton's Second Law of Motion states that "The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the imposed force and goes in the direction of the force, where F=ma".
Nibble is a group of 4 bits (half a byte) that are treated as a single unit. It is frequently represented by a single hex character.
See Network Interface Card
Nichrome Wire
Nichrome wire is a mixture of nickel and chrome alloy, a highly resistant wire that heats up when a certain amount of voltage pass through it.
Nines Complement
In the number system, Nines Complement of a decimal number is formed by subtracting each digit in the number from Nine
Nixie Tube
A vacuum tube filled with neon gas that contained wires in the shape of numbers or wires or other symbols will glow when powered.
NMOS stands for N-type metal oxide semiconductor, is a type of MOSFET in which electrons are the dominant charge carrier in the semiconductor channel.
Non-volatile memory
A semiconductor memory device that has the ability to retain the stored data/information even when the power goes off. ROM is a best example.
NPN transistor
A bipolar transistor in which the p-type (positively charged ) material causing the base is sandwiched between two n-type (negatively charged) material causing the emitter and the collector respectively.
N-type semiconductor
A semiconductor that has been doped with donor atoms resulting in a N-type extrinsic semiconductor in which electron concentration in much more than the hole concentration and conduction is due to the electrons which are the majority carriers while holes are minority carriers.


Object Code
Object Code is produced by the compiler or interpreter which translates source code into object code. This Object code is stored in object files and it is used as input to the linker.
Obsolete are the products which are no longer manufactured or discontinued due to replacement of products by advanced function etc.
Occupied Bandwidth
Occupied Bandwidth is width of frequency between below its lower and above its upper frequency limits, the mean powers radiated are each equal to 0.5% of the total mean power radiated by a given emission.
Octal Number System
Octal Number System is a number system that uses octal digits(0 to 7) and base of eight.
Octave is a interval between the one frequency is double or half of its frequency.
A grouping of 8 bits; similar but not identical to byte.
Odd Harmonic
Odd Harmonic is defined as odd multiple(1f,3f,5f, 7f…) of the fundamental frequency.
Odd Parity
The number of 1-bit must add up to an odd number.
Computer physically but not electrically connected to a network of computers or other devices and hence not under its direct control.
Off-Line Test Equipment
Off-Line Test Equipment is an equipment that tests and isolates faults in modules or assemblies removed from systems.
In op-amp, offset voltage is defined as the voltage applied between the two input terminals to obtain zero volts at the output.
Off-Set Null
In op-amp, two pins (pin 1 and 5 on the 8-pin package) labelled as Off-Set Null. When both inputs are connected to the same voltage, the output should be zero.
A non customized product that is readily available from the store supply of goods for marketing.
Ohm is a SI unit for electrical resistance. 1 ohm is equal to the current of 1 ampere which will flow when a voltage of one volt is applied.
Ohmic Value
Ohmic value refers to value of resistance in terms of ohms.
Ohmmeter is an instrument graduated in ohms, or fractions/multiples of ohms, which is utilized to measure and indicate the magnitude of electric resistance of conductors, insulators and other materials.
Ohm's Law
Ohms Law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across its ends. Mathematically, the law states that V = IR, where V is the potential difference or voltage, I is the current, and R is the resistance of the conductor.
Ohms per Square
Ohms per square is a unit for sheet resistance. It is a measure of the resistance between parallel edges of a thin-film resistive material, such as a metal or semiconductor.
Omnidirectional is receiving signals from or transmitting in all direction and not following any one direction.
One Shot
A multivibrator with only one stable state is called as One shot or monostable multivibrator.
One Time Programmable
OTP is a semiconductor device that can be programmed only once and it cannot be changed or reused after its initial programming. PROM, PAL are the One Time Programmable devices.
Ones Compliment
In the binary system, Ones compliment is obtained by changing all zero's to one and all one's to zero Or it is called as swapping of 0's and 1's.
See Operational Amplifier
Operational amplifier
A high gain, DC coupled amplifier that has differential input and is used as a basic building block in implementing linear circuits.
Optical coupler, optocoupler
A device that is a combination of a LED and a photo sensor which allows the optical signals to be transferred between two electrically isolated systems or circuits.
Optoelectronic device
A semiconductor device that is made to act upon light waves.
An oscilloscope is a measurement apparatus capable of visually depicting regular changes in electrical activity, such as an electrical current or signal. The resulting data appears as a waveform drawn on a graph with two axes, where the horizontal X axis represents time and the vertical Y axis indicates voltage. In addition, the luminance of the waveform itself is often referred to as the Z axis, which demonstrates the intensity of the activity measured.
See One Time Programmable
A condition in a circuit in which there is a increase of input voltage than the upper designed limit.
Over-voltage protection
Ability of the circuit to protect against the hazardous situation that is due to the sudden unexpected and unwanted increase of input voltage than the upper designed limit that lasts for micro second to few milliseconds.


Package type
A hermetically sealed or a non-hermetic plastic capsule that is used to pack the integrated circuit, allowing to extend the leads for input, output, power and other necessary connection.
During the data transmission, the messages has been broken into smaller entities called packets which contains group of bits of data.
Packet Format
A format in data transfer technique that specifies the structure of data, address, control related information in a packet.
Packet Switching
Packet switching is a method of data transmission in which messages has been broken into smaller entities called packets are transmitted over the network. Packet switching minimizes the impact of data transmission errors.
Pads are used during fabrication process to metalized on the surface of the chips to make the chip more receptive to solder.
Pad Layout
Pad layout specifies solder pad design, pad size and spacing of the printed wiring board copper pads required for the mounting of a IC or component to the board.
Paired Cable
Paired Cable is a set of two wires grouped together in a cable. Paired cable helps to minimize crosstalk and electromagnetic induction.
Paper Capacitor
Paper Capacitor is a fixed capacitor in which flat thin strips of metal foil (usually aluminium) is separated by dielectric material paper. Paper capacitors are used for medium capacitance value 1nF to 1uF mainly at power line frequency.
Parabolic Reflector
Parabolic Reflector are also called as paraboloids, it is a concave reflector used to produce a parallel beam when the source is placed at its focus or to focus an incoming parallel beam. Parabolic reflectors are used in astronomical telescopes, spotlights, car headlights and satellite dishes.
Parallax Error
The error/displacement caused in in the apparent position of the object due to the viewing angle that is other than the angle that is perpendicular to the object.
Parallel Circuit
A closed circuit in which the current entering a node will be divided into more than one path.
Parallel Data
Data that will be transmitted simultaneously over multiple lines.
Parallel Port
A port in which more than one data bit is sent or received at a time, commonly using a DB type of connector.
Parallel Tuned Circuit
A electrical circuit in which an inductor with or without a resistor in series with it and a capacitor with or without a resistor in series with it is connected in parallel with each other.
Parallel-Negative Limiter
In a limiter circuit in which the diode is connected in parallel with the output is taken across the diode that is in parallel with it eliminating the negative alterations of the input signal applied to the circuit.
Parallel-Positive Limiter
In a limiter circuit in which the diode is connected in parallel with the output is taken across the diode that is in parallel with it eliminating the positive alterations of the input signal applied to the circuit.
Parallel-Resonant Circuit
A parallel circuit consisting of inductor and capacitor in which the inductive reactance and the capacitive reactance are equal and obtain maximum impedance at the frequency at which the circuit is resonant.
Parallel-to-Serial Converter
A conversion process in which the stream of data elements received all at once is converted and sent as a stream of data at one bit at a time.
Parametric Amplifier
A sensitive low noise microwave amplifier in which the reactance is varied with frequency
Paraphase Amplifier
An amplifier that makes use of a phase inverter to give push-pull outputs from a single input.
Parasitic Capacitance
An unavoidable and unwanted capacitance that will be present in between the pins of the component or conductor resulting in the change in the intended output from the circuit or device.
Parasitic Oscillation
An unwanted and undesirable oscillation in an digital electronic device usually seen in feedback amplifier circuits such as in RF amplifiers, audio amplifiers and other digital processing.
In order to detect errors in the binary data, a condition is maintained such that the number of 1's and 0's is either even or odd and later this information is used for parity check process to detect any errors in the data transmitted.
Parity Bit
A bit number(1 or 0) attached at the end of the binary data indicating whether the data is even or odd.
Parity Check
A method of error detecting in the transmitted binary data in which the parity bit is used to check whether the data has been sent accurately or not.
Parity Error
An instance in which the number of 1's or 0's in the received data doesn't match with the transmitted data. Or An error condition in which the odd(or even) number of transmitted 1's(or 0's) are changed to be even(or odd) at the received end.
A single component/device or a permanent assembly of more than one part that is intended to be a part of something else.
Part Marking
A method that is followed so that the given part can be identified, just as the colour coding on a resistor.
An SI unit that is used in measuring pressure/stress(pa). Or Pascal can also be a structured high level general computer programming language.
A range of frequencies that is transmitted safely without attenuating by a filter circuit.
A process of making a metal/surface of the metal less effective to the environmental factors like air, moisture and so on… one way to do so is to coat the surface of a metal by paint.
Passive Component
An electronic component that does not require any electrical source or power to operate.
Passive Filter
A filter circuit that is consisting of only passive components like a resistor, capacitor or inductor in it without having any active components like transistors.
Passive probe
Passive probe is a probe that contains no active components, so they don't require external power.
Passive Satellite
A passive satellite is the one that just reflects the signal from one earth station to other earth station(or stations) without any amplification or retransmission.
Passive Serial Interface
An FPGA programming terminology in which the FPGA configurations is controlled by an external host.
A term used to narrate temporary circuit connection.
Patch Bay
A group of patch cables of same type that are connected so that monitoring, interconnecting, and testing circuits can be done in a flexible manner.
Patch Cord
A cable with connectors at both of its ends that can be used to connect two different network equipments together.
Patch Panel
Patch Panel is a mounted hardware consisting of network ports that connects incoming and outgoing lines of different communication systems using patch cords.
Path Loss
Attenuation undergone by the electromagnetic waves, resulting in the loss of power density as it propagates through the space.
P-channel MOS
A metal oxide semiconductor in which the gate channel is doped with P-type dopants thus requiring negative voltage to turn the device ON.
See Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
See Pin-Grid Array
A process in fabrication of IC in which a thin film of photo sensitive fluid is applied on the wafer that when exposed to sunlight loses its resistance to chemical etching and is used especially in the transference of a circuit pattern to a semiconductor chip.
Pin-Grid Array
A type of IC packaging technology that is usually in square or rectangular in shape and has an array or pins underneath the IC.
Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
A surface mount packaging type with plastic which uses metal pads in order to establish contact with socket or pcb.
Plastic Quad Flat Pack
A type of IC packaging technology which allows the gull wing pins to extend from all the four sides of the body.
See Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
See P-channel MOS
P-N junction
A area or the region in a semiconductor device where the P-type material and the N-type material are kept in contact with each other.
PNP transistor
A bipolar transistor in which the n-type (negatively charged ) material causing the base is sandwiched between two p-type (positively charged) material causing the emitter and the collector respectively.
Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
A process used to find possible causes and mechanisms for failure modes The FMEA process also finds both the frequency and results of the problems.
Power BiMOS
Power BiMOS (Bipolar Metal Oxide Semiconductor)are integrated circuit that combine the advantages of high voltage MOS transistors with high voltage bipolar transistors on a single monolithic chip. These circuits have the capability of interfacing higher voltages and current levels than conventional BiMOS circuits.
Power MOSFET is a type of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor used to switch large amounts of current. Power MOSFETs are the most commonly used power devices due to their low gate drive power, fast switching speed and superior paralleling capability.
Power transistor
Power transistor is a three terminal semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is a junction transistor designed to handle high current and power; used chiefly in audio and switching circuits.
See Plastic Quad Flat Pack
A probe is any device used to establish connection between the point of test and the test equipment.
Programmable Read-Only Memory
A type of read only memory device that allows the user to program it only once using a dedicated device called PROM programmer that blows a fuse in them. Unlike RAM, PROMs retain their contents when the computer is turned off.
See Programmable Read-Only Memory
P-type semiconductor
A semiconductor that has been doped with acceptor atoms resulting in a P-type extrinsic semiconductor in which holes concentration in much more than the electrons concentration and conduction is due to the holes which are the majority carriers while electrons are minority carriers.
A waveform consisting of rise and fall edges along with some width in between is a pulse. A pulse indicates sudden changes in voltage, similar to the voltage changes you would see if you turned a power switch on and then off again.
Pulse-Width Modulation
A modulation technique that generates the wave pulse whose width can be varied in accordance with the amplitude of the modulator signal.
See Pulse-Width Modulation


See Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
A band of microwave frequencies from the electromagnetic spectrum whose frequency ranges from 33GHz to 50GHz
A piece of test equipment that is used in testing the Q-factor (Q) of the RF circuits.
Quiescent point or an operating point is a point on graph where the load line intersects with the current curve.
See Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
A state in which two waves of same frequency with a phase difference of 90 degrees between them.
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
A means of combining two AM waves to a single channel thus doubling the effective bandwidth.
Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
A digital modulation technique in which the data is transmitted by modulating the phase of the carrier wave i.e. the carrier wave transition is always 90 degrees.
Quality (of Sound)
The distinguishing characteristic of a sound other than its pitch.
Quality Factor
A dimensionless parameter that is defined as the ratio of reactance to the resistance.
A process of constraining something from a continuous range of values of an analogue input signal to a non overlapping discrete values.
Quantization Level
The numerical value that is used in the quantization process to represent a continuous quantity.
The process of sub dividing a continuous signal to discrete values.
Quantized Wave
A wave that is formed as a result of quantization process. Or a wave consisting of a discrete values which were actually taken from a continuous analogue signal by a process of quantization.
Quantizing Noise
The inherent distortion/noise caused as a result of a quantization process.
Quantum-Mechanical Tunnelling
A quantum mechanical effect in which the electron particles cross over the energy barrier (PN Junction) as a result of tunnel effect.
Quartz is one of the most abundant hard mineral available on earth.
Quartz Clock
A clock that is operated by the oscillations generated by the quartz crystal.
Quartz Crystal
A small piece of quartz that is accurately cut in certain directions/axes and grounded carefully so that the crystal vibrates at a particular known frequency.
Quartz Oscillator
An oscillator that uses a piezoelectric quartz crystal to produce the oscillations. The then produced oscillations are at a frequency that is determined by the physical characteristics of the quartz crystal.
Quick Connect Terminal
Quick Connect Terminal is a terminal or receptacle used for rapid inter-connection.
Quick Disconnect
A connector that is used in the areas where rapid connects and disconnects are required.
The quite state of a electrical circuit when there is no input signal is given to the circuit.
Quiescent Current
The current that exists in the circuit at the time when the circuit is not driving any load.
Quiescent Power Consumption
The power that a component consumes for its normal operation with no input applied.
Quiescent State
A state of quite in the circuit when no circuit elements perform their function.
A sequence of five individual circuit blocks within the same IC package.
Qwerty Keyboard
A modern day computer keyboard that has the same key patterns as that of a typewriter.


R2R Ladder
An electrical circuit used in Digital to Analogue converter circuits in which a sequence of resistors in 'L' shape are connected in tandem.
Race Condition
Race condition is an undesirable situation in an system or software in which the device's output depends on two or more uncontrollable sequence that occur simultaneously at the input.
An enclosed physical channel or pathway for the for electrical and other wiring purpose that protects the wires from general and environmental hazards.
A vertical framework usually consisting of bars, hooks, rails or pegs that is used either to store or display various articles.
Rack and Panel Connector
A connector that is usually square or rectangular in shape and is primarily designed to connect the device and the equipment rack.
A system that use synchronized radio transmitter and receiver to out pulse radio waves that can detect the presence, distance and activities of any distant objects like a space craft.
Radial Lead
A electronic component package in which the wire leads for connection/solder comes from the same side of the component.
A unit of angular measurement that is equal to the length that corresponds to the unit circle. 1radian is equal to about 57.3 degrees.
Radiant Energy
Energy that is radiated in the form of electromagnetic waves.
The energy that is emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves from any source and travels either through some material or through the space.
Radiation Field
An area or field that represents the energy emitted by any source to the space
Radiation Hardened
The process of making a component or a system resistant to the damages that can be caused by cosmic rays, ionising and other electromagnetic radiations.
Radiation Hardness Assurance
A part of the performance verification phase that assures that the part meets the desired radiation response as per the specification sheet.
Radiation Losses
The loss occurred when a surface radiates mechanical lines of forces which are not returned towards the source as a cyclic alternates.
Radiation Pattern
The graphical representation of the strength and angular direction of the electromagnetic wave that is emitted from an antenna or any other surface.
Radiation Resistance
The resistance that consumes the same amount of power that is radiated by the antenna.
Radiation, Space
The energy radiated by any source in the form of electromagnetic wave that travel through space.
A device that can transmit and receive wireless signals in the form of electromagnetic waves in an frequency ranging from 30KHz to 300,000MHz (approx).
Radio Communications
A term that defines the wireless communication system in which electromagnetic waves with frequency ranging from 30KHz to 300GHz are used for communication purposes.
Radio Frequency
A range of electromagnetic waves whose frequency ranges between 30KHz to 300GHz that are suitable for radio communication.
Radio Frequency Carrier Shift
For FSK systems, the transmitter provides a source of radio-frequency excitation. In modern systems, the keyer is built into the transmitter. The keyer to shift a radio frequency signal above or below an assigned frequency, these shifts correspond to mark or space required to transmit characters.
Radio Frequency Choke
An inductor that is used to increase the impedance in the circuit thus helping to attenuate high frequency signals.
Radio Net
A network of radio stations that help communication with one another over a common frequency.
Radio Set Control Unit
A piece of equipment that is capable of controlling the functions RF receiver/transmitter.
Radio Spectrum
A range of electromagnetic frequencies that are used in TV, radio and radar communications.
Radio Waves
A type of electromagnetic radiations suitable for radio communications with frequency ranging 3KHz to 300GHz and wave length more than that of infrared rays.
A wireless telephone communication system that makes use of radio transmitters and receivers.
Radix is the base of the system of logarithms or number system. Ex. Radix of decimal system is '10' and binary system is '2'
Radix Point
A general term that implies to all number bases which is a symbol that is used to integer part of a number from its fractional part.
A weather proof dome structured enclosure that is being transparent to radio-frequency protects the antenna and the measurement equipments and also conceals the direction the radar is pointing.
See Random-Access Memory
Random-Access Memory
A type of memory device that is volatile and permits random access to any memory location without touching the preceding bytes that is used to store temporary data or information that is required by the processor while in operation.
A drain to source resistance of a forward biased MOSFET with specified drain current and gate voltage.
Read-Only Memory
A non-volatile memory device that doesn't allow the user to program it as it will be pre programmed.
Real-time sampling
Real-time sampling is a mode in which the oscilloscope as many samples as possible to reconstruct the signal from one triggered acquisition.
Record Length 
Record length is a number of points in a waveform considered by an oscilloscope that is used in creating a record of a signal.
A rectifier is an device/circuit that converts the input AC signal into pulsating DC signal.
Reduced Instruction Set Computer
A type of processor architecture that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions.
See Radio Frequency
See Radiation Hardness Assurance
See Reduced Instruction Set Computer
Rise Time 
The time taken by a pulse's leading edge in rising form its lowest to highest value which is usually measured from 10% to 90%
See Read-Only Memory


See Sample and Hold
Safe Operating Area
A current and voltage conditions within which a semiconductor device will operate normally without damaging itself.
Safety Factor
The term that defines the ability of the system beyond the expected load.
Safety Margin
The difference between the intrinsic value to its actual value.
Sallen-Key Filter
A topology that is commonly used to implement a second order active filter with high Q unity and gain amplifier.
Sample and Hold
A circuit that captures the voltage of a continuously varying analogue signal and locks the captured value at a constant level for a specified time.
Sample rate
A digital oscilloscope will often takes the samples of a signal, the sample rate specifies how often the samples have been taken. Usually measured as Samples per second(S/s).
A process in which a the input signal is converted into number of discrete electrical values either to store, process and/or display by an oscilloscope.
Sampling Oscilloscope
An instrument that displays the visual representation of a signal form the samples measured.
Sampling Rate
The Sampling rate defines the number of samples taken from a continuous signal per unit time to make it a discrete signal.
See Successive Approximation Register
An artificial celestial body that placed in orbit round the planet in order to collect information or to establish better communication network.
Satellite Eclipse
A phase in which the satellite doesn't receive the sunlight to recharge itself through the solar cells that in turn reduces the power of the satellite to transmit/receive signals from the earth station.
Satellite-Sun Conjunction
A period when the earth station, the satellite and the sun are too close too each other and the noise from the sun prevents communication.
Saturable-Core Reactor
A special form of inductor in which the inductive reactance is reduced to increase the current flow by deliberately saturating the magnetic core from current in the control winding.
A operating point in an electric circuit further increase in the input signal will cause no effect at the output.
Saw Tooth
A type of non-sinusoidal waveform whose amplitude varies linearly with time between two values resembling teeth of a saw.
Saw Tooth Oscillator
An electronic oscillator such as an relaxation oscillator that produces a non-sinusoidal output such as a Saw tooth wave.
The term that defines a portion of microwave band of electromagnetic waves whose frequency ranges between 2 to 4 GHz. S band is utilized in radar communications.
Scaling Factor
Scaling Factor is a term used to describe the use of unequal resistors in a servos summing network to compensate for differences between input and output signal levels.
Mean to search for the target by moving a radar beam over the sky in a systematic manner.
A representation of an module/system by only line diagrams or graphical symbols rather than the realistic pictures.
Schematic Symbol
A pictogram used to represent electrical/electronic components or devices in a schematic drawing of a board or system.
Schering Bridge
A four-arm Alternating current bridge that is used to measure the unknown capacitance of a condenser and to measure the loss in dielectrics.
Schmitt Trigger
An Circuit that has hysteresis in between and upper and lower voltage levels, The circuit switches high or gives constant output when the input is above the upper limit of the voltage and switches low only when the input voltage is below the lower limit of the voltage.
Schottky Diode
A type of junction diode in which the junction formed between the N type material and the metal contact where the physical contact acts as the P type material thus used in applications where fast switching actions are required. This diodes are also known for its fast switching speed and high frequency capability.
Schottky Transistor
A TTL circuit in which the schottky diode is used in order to prevent the transistor from saturating by diverting the excessive input current.
See Silicon-controlled rectifier
Scratchpad Memory
The high speed internal memory that is much faster and is used for temporary storage of any data or calculation result or any other information.
Screen Grid
A grid or an electrode that is placed in between the anode of a valve/plate and a control grid normally maintained at fixed positive potential to eliminate the effect of plate-potential variations on the control grid.
Screening is a process of applying nonconductive or semi conductive materials to a substrate to form thick film components.
Second Detector (Demodulator)
A circuit that is used to separate the actual message/information from the carrier signal.
The winding from which the output of a transformer is taken.
Secondary Cell
A rechargeable battery that is recharged by the current flowing opposite to the direction of discharge current.
Secondary Emission
Emission of electrons from a surface other than the cathode resulting in the bombardment by electrons emitted by the cathode.
Secondary Winding
The winding that is fed by the primary winding and then feeds the potential to the load/circuit connected to the secondary winding of the transformer.
A small addressable unit that is a part of the magnetic storage device or computer disk
Seek Time
The time taken by the arm of the disk to locate the appropriate track at which the specific data is stored.
A solid crystalline substance that has its electrical properties in between that of a conductor and a insulator.
Semiconductor device
An electronic component/device that exploit the conducting properties of a semiconductor.
Semicustom IC
An analogue, digital or a mixed signal Integrated circuit that can only be partially programmed as per the user requirement and the rest of it are predefined and is unchangeable.
A device that respond by providing an electrical signal on detecting or sensing any physical or chemical parameters.
See Safety Factor
Signal processing
An area of engineering and mathematics that analyses and operates on the signals in order to enhance the representations of physical or electrical parameters/properties of the signal.
Silicon-controlled rectifier
A four-layer solid state current controlling or switching device that turns current on and off. The name "silicon controlled rectifier" or SCR is General Electric's trade name for a type of thyristor. SCRs use a small amount of current to switch hundreds of amps without being damaged.
Sine wave
The fundamental wave shape is mathematically defined as a Sine Wave.
Single In-line Package
A type of packaging that has a single row of extended contact leads that can be mounted vertically(through hole) on the PCB.
See Single In-line Package
Small Outline Integrated Circuit
A type of IC package that is usually rectangular in shape with the gull wing leads that are bent at the tip that support surface mount soldering process.
Small-Scale Integration
One of the level in the process of miniaturization of the integrated circuits that has a very few logic gates numbering in tens.
See Standard Military Drawing
See Surface-Mount Technology
See Small Outline Integrated Circuit
See Safe Operating Area
A set of instructions give to a computer to perform a specific task or based on which defines the functionality of the hardware. Anything that can be stored electronically is a software.
A general purpose electronic circuit simulator that models electrical circuit at transistor level.
See Static Random Access Memory
See Small-Scale Integration
Standard Military Drawing
A design standard for constructing semiconductor devices that can be mounted directly on the surface of the PCB. Developed by the Defence Electronic Supply Centre (DESC)
Static Random Access Memory
A type of memory that stores the data/information in static method and requires the power supply continuously in order to retain the data.
A type of electrical motor that rotates in small discrete steps.
Successive Approximation Register
A type of analogue to digital conversion in which the value of the unknown quantity is estimated by repetitive comparison with the known values.
Surface-Mount Technology
A design standard for constructing semiconductor devices that can be mounted directly on the surface of the PCB without the need of extended contacts as in through hole.
A open/close mechanism that either allow a particular signal to pass through or blocks it. Just like make or break circuit.
Switched capacitor
A circuit element used for signal processing that operates by the moment of charges in and out of the capacitor depending upon the positions of the switches connected and commonly used to create filtering and signal conditioning circuits.
System-level integration
The process of adding more and more devices on to a single IC or bringing an system and its subsystems together and make them work as a single system.


See Tape Automated Bonding
A device that measures the rotational speed especially the rotational speed of a shaft. Ex: revolution of bikes wheels in rpm.
Tactile Switch
A tactile switch is momentary switch that is on only for that period the switch is pressed and goes off as soon as released.
An arrangement that is made by placing one behind the other.
Tank Circuit
A combination of inductor and capacitor connected act as a electrical resonator or tank circuit that stored energy oscillations at the circuits resonant frequency.
Tantalum Capacitor
A capacitor that consists of pellet of tantalum metal as anode while the conductive material as a cathode making the insulating oxide layer as a dielectric material. See our range of Tantalum Capacitors
A fixed intermediate point in an electrical from which connections can be made.
Tape and Reel
A process of packing electronic components. The components are placed on a plastic sheet that is covered by tape and then wounded around the reel. Try our Full Reel Finder
Tape Automated Bonding
Tape Automated Bonding is a process that places bare integrated circuits onto a printed circuit board (PCB) by attaching them to fine conductors in a polyamide or polyimide film, thus providing a means to directly connect to external circuits. TAB offers the advantage of allowing a circuit to be tested at high frequencies and proving it in good condition without the expensive alternative of mounting it in a module for testing, thus avoiding the need to rework modules.
Tape Drive
Tape drive is the one that is used to transport the magnetic tape to the read/write head of the recorder specially for archiving and backup purposes.
Means gradually narrowing down at one end.
Tapped Delay Line
A delay line that has at least one tap in it. Multiple taps are helpful and provides more options to select the required amount of delay.
Tapped Resistor
Unlike wire wound resistors, the tapped resistors will be having one or more added terminals along its length.
Tapped Winding
A winding just like a transformer winding with one or more additional terminals in between the terminals present at the extreme ends.
A digital transmission that uses PCM and TDM techniques for digitized voice transmissions.
An optical splitter with three (either one input to two output or two input to one output) ports that is used to either split the incoming signal into two different channels or combine inputs from two different channels into one output.
See T-carrier
See Tapped Delay Line
Tee Connector
A 'T' shaped coaxial connector that is used to connect three different cables that are terminated with mating connectors.
An electronic means of telegraphic system in which the communication or exchange of information over a significant distance is achieved by means of optical signals, radio waves, transmission wires etc..
Telemetry is the highly automated wireless transmission and reception of measured quantities for the purpose of remotely monitoring environmental conditions or equipment parameters. The term is also used in reference to the signals containing such data.
Temperature Coefficient
The Temperature coefficient is the relative change of a physical property when the temperature is changed by 1 Kelvin i.e. the amount of change of resistance in a material per unit change in temperature.
Temperature Compensation
The ability to nullify any inconvenience caused to the normal operation of the device due to the change in the temperature.
Temperature Cycling
A process of varying the temperature rapidly between two extreme temperature ranges(-65ºC to 150ºC) at a very high rate of change in order to evaluate the reliability of the product in between specified temperature ranges.
Temperature Inversion
An atmospheric layer in which there will be a rise in the temperature as the height increases resulting in cooler layer below and warmer layer above.
Temperature Sensor
Temperature sensor are the tools that are specially designed to change their own characteristics depending upon the temperature of the surrounding conditions. Typically a thermocouple or RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) provides temperature measurement through an electrical signal.
Temperature Shock
An unexpected sudden change of temperature.
Temperature Stabilizer
A circuit that monitors the temperature of another device and take necessary action when the temperature of the device goes more or less than the predetermined values.
Temperature, Military
A range of temperature as defined by the US military standard ' MIL-STD-810'. i.e. −55 °C to 125 °C (sometimes -65 °C to 175 °C).
A term that defines the emission of electromagnetic radiations form the devices used in telecommunication etc.. That is believed to be used to reconstruct intelligible data.
Tensile Strength
The maximum resistance offered by a material like a rope or wire to that point when the force tears it apart. Or The maximum amount of strength that the material can withstand before it tears apart.
Tented Via
A solder mask or a dry film polymer used in covering both the via pad and the pad holes preventing the hole access from contamination.
A portion of the electronic component that is used to make electrical contact to the component or mount the device onto the board.
Terminal Block
A device that typically snaps into a metal rail or are screw-mounted on the panel and is used to join wires or cables via mechanical screws.
Terminal Board
An insulating slab or a board upon which the terminals are mounted.
Terminal Diagram
Also termed as wiring diagram is a pictorial representation of wire connections to the equipment.
Terminal Impedance
The Impedance that is measured at the output terminals of the transmission equipment without any load.
Terminal Lug
A small mechanical piece that is used to establish electrical connection to the terminal.
Terminal Stud
A threaded bolt like terminal in which the conductor is placed and later fastened with nut.
The end of some thing just like terminating a cable with a suitable connector or terminating the circuit with proper load.
Ternary Signal
A signal that can assume a power level, phase position, pulse duration, or frequency at any given instant.
Tertiary Winding
An additional winding along with the primary and secondary windings in a transformer in order to provide path for the harmonics produced in the transformer. Such transformers are called Tertiary transformers or Three winding transformers.
A four layered solid state semiconductor device with alternate N-type and P-type materials, having three terminals (anode, cathode and gate) that will start to conduct when gate is triggered and continue until the device is forward biased.
Time base
A special oscilloscope that controls the sweep timing. It is set as seconds/division control.
Transient over-voltage
An hazardous situation in any electrical circuit that is due to the sudden unexpected and unwanted increase of input voltage than the upper designed limit that lasts for micro second to few milliseconds.
Transient suppression
A technique of protecting the electric circuit of a device from sudden unwanted spikes form the input line.
Transient Voltage Suppressor
A semiconductor device that is designed to react to any transient spikes form the source and in turn protect the circuit from any such overvoltage conditions.
An active current controlled semiconductor device that has three terminals(emitter, collector and base) and is provides amplification and switching functions.
Transistor Transistor Logic
A technology that is used to develop digital circuits that make use of transistors and resistors. In this circuit both the amplifying and the logic functions are done by transistors only. Hence the name Transistor-Transistor Logic.
Triangle wave
A non-sinusoidal wave that is named after its shape is a linear, continuous real function that raises at a constant rate with time.
A timing pulse used to initiate the transmission of signals through the appropriate circuit signal paths.
Trigger mode
Trigger mode determines if the oscilloscope draws the waveform if trigger is not detected or not. The common trigger modes are Normal and Auto.
See Transistor Transistor Logic
See Transient Voltage Suppressor
Twisted Ring Counter
See Johnson Counter


See UnBuffered Dual In-Line Memory Module
See Ultra High Frequency
See Uni-Junction Transistor
A standard codec algorithm developed by CCITT for PWM to improve the SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) without adding anymore data.
In an ISO-OSI model, the upper level protocol always refers to the next highest protocol than the current reference protocol.
Ultra Extended Graphics Array
A graphical display mode with the display resolution of 1600x1200 i.e. 1.9 pixels approx.
Ultra High Frequency
A portion of electromagnetic waves or a radio frequencies whose frequency ranges from 300 MHz and 3 GHz and wavelength from 1 meter and 10 centimetres.
Sound waves with frequency above the human ear's audibility limit i.e. greater than 20KHz.
A type of radiation emitted from the sun with wavelengths ranging from 4nm to 380nm.
UMOS is a U-Shape Metal Oxide Semiconductor.
Unbalanced Attenuator
A attenuator in which all the resistive elements are connected to one side of the transmission line while grounding the other side so as to prevent any leakages at higher frequencies.
Unbalanced Crystal Mixer
Unbalanced Crystal Mixer is the simplest type of radar mixer. A circuit consisting of a tuned section of coaxial transmission line one-half wavelength long that is tuned to the difference (intermediate) frequency between the local oscillator and RF echo signals.
Unbalanced Line
A transmission line commonly a coaxial cable whose magnitudes of voltages among the conductors are unequal with that of ground.
UnBuffered Dual In-Line Memory Module
A type of memory stick that can operate faster than the registered DIMM and is also cost effective comparatively. In UDIMM, the front side PWB pins are not connected to the rear side pins, instead they are used for different functions.
The quality/condition/state of unclear or doubt.
The system that oscillates at a lower frequency with the amplitude slowly inches towards zero.
In data processing, a condition arises when the computed non-zero quantity in a machine is smaller than the smallest non-zero quantity that can be stored in the machine.
Underground Cable
Cable that is specially designed to be placed/buried directly beneath the surface of the earth or within the conduit and later used for communication, power distribution or any other intended purposes. These cable are designed to protect against moisture, rodents, cable-seeking backhoes, and other earth-moving equipment.
In the transition of any parameter from one value to another, such as from one significant condition to another, the condition that occurs when a temporary value is less than the final or target value.
Anything that is exposed directly to atmosphere without having any protective material/enclosure to cover it.
Path allowing in single direction only. i.e. once went, no way back.
Uniform Transmission Line
A transmission line that has constant V/I ratio throughout its length and also has its electrical properties(like R, C & L) distributed constantly along the line.
Uni-Junction Transistor
A single junctioned, three terminal voltage controlled semiconductor switch that controls current.
Uninterruptible Power Supply
An electrical apparatus that has rechargeable batteries within it which is used to protect any electronic devices from transient anomalies or temporary power outages when connected in between the device to be protected and the mains.
An active solid state component that has single carrier either positive or negative charge carrier but not both.
Unipolar Signal
A baseband method used in data communication system for sending binary data over a communication line with only two logic states either 0 or 1.
Unipolar Transistor
A Field effect transistor that uses only one type of charge for conduction from drain to source i.e. either electrons (n-channel FET) or holes (P-channel FET).
A single device or a group of devices that can operate itself and can also assembled together to execute a more complex operation.
Unit Impulse
A mathematical function that is has zero amplitude everywhere except at zero location. Or a function with infinite amplitude and zero width.
Unit Size
An adopted standard that compares two things of like value.
Unity Coupling
An Ideal coupling between two inductors, so that entire magnetic field of one inductor passes to the second inductor.
Unity Gain
The gain of an amplifier is one meaning to say that the output of the amplifier is at the same level as that of the input.
Universal Motor
A electrical motor that is designed to work on both Alternating current and Direct current.
Universal Output Transformer
A transformer that is having a large number of taps in both primary and secondary windings so as to provide facility to the user to select various output possibilities.
Universal Serial Bus
A standard type of bus that connects the device and its peripherals and allows the exchange of information over a 4-wire interface cable.
Universal Test and Operations Physical Interface for ATM
A Bus standard used to test the operations of physical interface for ATM's.
Universal Time Constant Chart
A chart that is used to fetch the time constant of any circuit with prior information of voltage and R&L/R&C values.
UNIX is almost popular multi-tasking and multi-user operating system and was the first OS to be written in a high level programming language(i.e. C) developed in Bell Labs. Since Unix was distributed in a source language, anybody can develop a customized version of Unix like Solaris (SUN systems), Linux etc... Unix can be installed virtually to any pc with c compiler in it(i.e. natural portability).
Untapped Delay Line
A delay line without any tap in it. Or a circuit with a fixed amount of delay that cannot be adjusted or programmed.
Untuned Line
A nonresonant line is a line that has no standing waves of current and voltage. The load impedance of such a line is equal to Z0, no special tuning devices are required to effect a maximum power transfer; hence, the line is also called an untuned line.
Up Link
A portion of the transmission links that is used in transmission of signals form the earth station to the satellite.
A electrical circuit that is used to boost the frequency of the input signal, in other words it increases the frequency or the input signal.
Up-Down Counter
The combination of up counter and down counter that makes it possible to change their state in either of the direction by the incrementing/decrementing the values by 1.
Upper Frequency Cutoff
The maximum frequency that is permitted to pass through a circuit without any eliminations or cut offs.
Upper Sideband
Among the frequencies, the frequency that is above the frequency of the carrier wave is the upper sideband.
See Uninterruptible Power Supply.
See Universal Serial Bus.
Useful Life
A phase in the lifetime of a component in which only random failures occurs.
See Universal Test and Operations Physical Interface for ATM.
See Ultra-Violet.
UV Erasable
Defines the memory devices like an EPROM whose data can be erased by exposing them to UV rays.
See Ultra Extended Graphics Array.


An enclosed area of space that is relatively empty of matter.
Vacuum Circuit Breaker
Circuit breakers that operate in the absence of matter with minimal arcing as there is nothing to ionize other than the contact material.
Vacuum Evaporation
A process of depositing a thin film of metal onto the substrate through the mask openings in the absence of matter.
Vacuum Tube
An electron tube within which there is almost no matter present so as to permit the electrons to move with no effects form the residual gas.
Vane Attenuator
A variable resistive attenuator that will introduce attenuation into the waveguide circuit.
Vaneaxial Fan
Vaneaxial blades is essentially a tube axial fan with air guide vanes located either before or after the impeller. The guide vanes improve the performance of axial flow fan, especially when discharging against pressure.
See Volt-Amperes Reactive.
VAR Hour
An integral of the reactive power over time(an hour).
A semiconductor device in which the capacitance in varied in accordance with the applied voltage.
Varactor FM Modulator
A frequency modulator circuit that uses varactor diode to change the oscillator in accordance with a modulating voltage.
An element or a factor that has no fixed value and is always liable to change.
Variable Attenuator
An attenuator circuit that decreases the strength of the input signal either continuously or step by step without appreciable signal distortion while substantially maintaining constant impedance match.
Variable Capacitance Diode
A PN junction semiconductor device in which the capacitance in varied in accordance with the applied voltage.
Variable Capacitor
Unlike standard capacitors, in a variable capacitor the capacitance can be varied either mechanically or electronically.
Variable Resistor
A type of the resistor that allows the resistance to be adjusted.
An electron tube that allows the amplification factor to be varied in a predetermined manner with the control gird voltage.
An adjustable autotransformer with single winding that is commonly used in test and calibration works.
A semiconductor device in which the resistance in varied in accordance with the applied voltage. See our range of Varistors.
A test equipment that measures the reactive volt-ampere of a electrical circuit into which it is inserted.
Varnished Cambric
Linen or cotton fabric with varnish or insulating oil that is used for electrical insulation purposes.
VDD is a notations used in describing voltages at various common power supply terminals of a given circuit.
A hardware description language that is standardized by IEEE 1364 and used in design and verification of analogue, digital and mixed signal circuits.
Vertical resolution
The resolution, in bits, of the ADC indicates how precisely it can turn input voltages into digital values.
Vertical sensitivity
Vertical sensitivity with the oscilloscope will indicate how much the vertical amplifier is able to boost a weak signal. Vertical sensitivity is usually given in millivolts (mV) per division. The smallest voltage a general purpose oscilloscope can detect is typically about 2 mV per vertical screen division.
Very High Frequency
A small portion of the electromagnetic radio frequency wave whose frequency range falls between 30MHz to 300MHz.
Very High Speed Integrated Circuit program
A program that was initiated by the US Defence Department with the intention of exceeding the performance of the commercially available IC's. The best part of this is the well known hardware description language(HDL).
See VHSIC Hardware Description Language.
See Very High Frequency.
VHSIC Hardware Description Language
A hardware description language that was developed in sponsorship of US defence department as a part of the VHSIC program in order to design electronic automation that describes digital and mixed signal functions in FPGA's and other IC's. It can also be used as a parallel general purpose programming language.
VHSIC program
See Very High Speed Integrated Circuit program.
Virtual integration
A keyword that describes the use of internet by industries and companies to store the physical components(like documents etc.)so that it is accessible by any user provided with access.
Volatile memory
A semiconductor memory device that doesn't have the ability to retain the stored data/information when the power goes off. RAM is a best example.
Voltage is the electrical potential difference between the two points in any circuit.(1 volt is the amount of e.m.f. that will cause 1 ampere of current to flow on 1 ohm of resistance).
Voltage regulator
An semiconductor device or an electric circuit that reduces the tolerance in the output than compared with the input. It feeds a processor with constant required voltage (5V for 7805 IC) provided with input that is subjected to minor variations.
Volt-Amperes Reactive
A unit that is used to measure reactive power in AC circuits which is defined as the product of effective voltage and effective current in an alternating-current circuit and the sine of the angular phase difference between them.


A thin slice of semiconducting material like silicon or germanium later from which the IC's are manufactured.
Wafer Switch
A switch in which the contacts are arranged on both sides or the wafers, though the contacts are electrically independent they are mechanically connected to the shaft.
Wait State
A condition in a machine or a software program at which it is unable to proceed with further operations/instructions unless an event is occurred. Thus waits for that event to take place.
Wall Wart
An AC adaptor or an AC/DC converter that plugs into a AC mains and holds the supply within the plug unless connected to a battery operated electronic device.
WatchDog Timer
A timer card that is used to perform a specific task after a particular time is elapsed. It is commonly used by microprocessors to reset itself if something goes wrong and the processor doesn't recover on its own. Hence the WDT must be refreshed quite frequently by the processor in its normal operation.
A type of enclosure that doesn't permit water to flow either from outside nor from inside the enclosure.
The SI unit of the power that is equal to the joules per second and is defined as the current flow of one ampere with voltage of one volt.
Wattage Rating
The rating that is given to an device specifying the maximum power within which the device can be safely handled.
A SI unit that is used practically to measure electrical energy and is equal to power consumption of one watt for a period of one hour.
Watt-Hour Meter
A electricity meter that is used to measure the amount of electrical energy consumed.
An instrument that is used to measure electrical power calibrated in watts.
A pattern of disturbance generated by the movement of energy propagating through a medium from one location to another.
Wave Motion
The process by which the repeating disturbance travels from one point to another through the space with or without any physical medium.
Wave Train
A group of waves of equal amplitude and intervals travelling in a same direction.
Wave Winding
An armature winding in which two coils are connected in series and follow each other on the surface of the armature like waves such that there are only two paths for the current flow irrespective of the number of poles In the circuit.
The graphical representation of the wave by plotting the instantaneous values against time.
Waveform Analysis
The representation of the amplitude and phase of a wave either mathematically or by electronic instrument.
Waveform capture rate
The rate at which the display is updated with new view of the input waveform expressed as waveforms per second (wfms/s).
A surface or a small section that consisting of all the points in space reached by a wave.
A conducting hollow metal tube of any shape that is specially designed to transport electromagnetic/high frequency waves.
Waveguide Duplexer
Waveguide Duplexer consists of tr tubes and atr tubes housed in a resonant cavity and attached to a waveguide system in some manner. Resonant-cavity tr tubes may be applied to waveguides, either directly or indirectly, to obtain switching action.
Waveguide Mode of Operation
Waveguide Mode of Operation classified into two broad types: the transverse electric (TE) and the transverse magnetic (TM) modes.
Waveguide Post
A conductive material that is used to provide impedance matching.
Waveguide Screw
A screw shaped conductive material that is used to provide impedance matching.
The distance that is travelled by the given wave in one cycle.
A wave meter is a test instrument the is used to measure the frequency or the wavelength of the electromagnetic or radio waves.


X-Cut Crystal
A crystal is cut in such a manner that the resulting slab is perpendicular to the electrical axis.
Xenon A rare gas
A rare gaseous element that is found in very small quantities in the atmosphere that is very much unreactive, colourless and odourless which is commonly used in bactericidal, and laser-pumping lamps.
Xenon Arc Lamp
A specialized gas discharge lamp in which the xenon gas between two electrodes is exited by a high intensity light.
Representative symbol of inductive reactance of an circuit and is given by XL = (2 x π x F x L).
XLR Connector
A type of circular electrical connector with 3 or 7 conductors that is most commonly used for Audio, video and lighting applications.
A logical binary operation that returns true if both the inputs are same(either both true or both false) and returns false if one of the input is true while the other is false.
A protocol that is used to control the data flow in between computer and its peripheral where X refers to the transmitter. Hence XOFF meaning to say that the transmitter is off.
A protocol that is used to control the data flow in between computer and its peripheral where X refers to the transmitter. Hence XON meaning to say that the transmitter is on.
A logical binary operation that returns false if both the inputs are same(either both true or both false) and returns true if one of the input is true while the other is false.
X-Ray Emission
Emission of electromagnetic radiation of relatively high energy protons and with wavelength range of 0.01 nm to 10 nm's from a X-ray machine.
X-ray lithography
A process followed in the semiconductor industry in which X-rays are used to remove the selected portion of the film.
An abbreviation of crystal. A solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an ordered pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
XY Plotter
The printer that is able to draw a continuous vector graphics in two(X & Y) axes of motion.
XY-Cut Crystal
The crystal is cut from its main quartz crystal in XY manner that is capable to work in 5 - 100 kHz where one common frequency is 32.768 kHz.


See Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet.
Yagi antenna
A highly directional antenna that radiates in single direction and is specially used in point to point type of communication with frequency more than 10MHz.
Vertical amplifier of an oscilloscope is also called as Y-Amplifier. The Vertical Amplifiers of an oscilloscope receive the signal voltages and amplify these signals sufficient to deflect the CRT's beam vertically.
The oscillations or twisting about the vertical axis as that of a moving ship or a aircraft.
A vertical reference axis in a two dimensional coordinate system/graph.
A cable that has a shape of a character 'Y', A cable that is able to feed two destination with one input end.
One of the way of cutting the quartz crystal in which the face of the resulting slab is perpendicular to the Y-axis.
See YIG Crystal.
YIG Crystal
Is magneto-optical material that has very high Q factor that can oscillate at microwave frequencies when immersed in a DC magnetic field providing very low phase noise in oscillators.
YIG Yttrium-Iron-Garnet
A type of synthetic ferromagnetic material with garnet crystal structure that has (chemical composition Y3Fe2(FeO4)3, or Y3Fe5O12) very narrow ferromagnetic resonance absorption line commonly used in microwave ferrite devices.
A star network with three arms one end of each connected to a common point in the shape of 'Y'.
A set of coils that is located over the neck of the CRT that projects the electrons in corresponding to the screen shape of the CRT i.e. perfect square image or rectangular image depending on the screen's shape.
A synthetic gemstone called as yttrium aluminium garnet with fixed hardness and high refractive index most commonly used in laser technologies and as a gemstone in ornaments.


See Zero-Buffer DDR.
Zener Breakdown
Also known as Zener Effect, is like a electrical breakdown condition in a zener diode due to the reverse bias voltage exceeding the breakdown voltage resulting in the tunnelling of electrons from the valence to the conduction band leading to a large number of free minority carriers that suddenly increases the reverse current.
Zener Diode
A semiconductor PN junction diode that not only allows the current to flow in the forward direction unlike other diodes but also allows the current to flow in the reverse direction if the applied voltage is more than the breakdown voltage(Zener Voltage).
Zener Effect
Also known as Zener breakdown, is like a electrical breakdown condition in a zener diode due to the reverse bias voltage exceeding the breakdown voltage resulting in the tunnelling of electrons from the valence to the conduction band leading to a large number of free minority carriers that suddenly increases the reverse current.
Zener Voltage
The voltage that is sufficient for the reverse breakdown condition thus allowing the diode to conduct in the reverse direction.
Zero Adjustment
A small adjustment made to a instrument so that it shows zero output in the unloaded condition.
Zero Crossing Detector
An electrical circuit that gives an output pulse in order to trigger other circuitry whenever the input signal crosses the zero level.
Zero Insertion Force Socket
A type of IC/component socket that requires almost negligible force to insert and remove the component with the help of a lever or a screw.
Zero Potential
The potential across the ground terminal in any electrical circuit.
Zero-bit Insertion
A bit stuffing technique in a data transmission process in which a '0' bit is added into the data after a series of '1's to make sure the data is not mistaken as a control signal.
Zero-Buffer DDR
A technology for unbuffered memory modules that uses zero-delay clock buffers in order to combine the robustness of server class memory with the low latency of unbuffered modules for better data integrity, less noise and less susceptibility to interference.
The process of filling zeros into all the memory tracks.
The process of adjusting a device or a instrument to its electrical zero position.
A process of resetting all the locations to zero either by altering or deleting the contents.
See Zero Insertion Force Socket.
Zig Zag Package
A IC packaging technology that is related to the pins that has two terminals rows in parallel oriented perpendicular to the seating plan arranged in a staggered configuration.
A bluish-white metallic element with atomic number 30 & melting point 419.50C that is commonly used as the protective layer for the things that are made of iron and steel.
Two or more conductors/optical fibers which are joined together by an insulating jacket material in such a way that they can be easily separated from one another by just pulling/tearing them apart in order to ease the installation process.
Zone of Mutual Visibility
An area in which the satellite is visible in both the earth terminals (up-link terminal and down-link terminal).
Zone of Silence
A region of no signal detection in between the previous reflection of a radio wave received and the next reflection to be received.
Zone Plate
A glass plate consisting of a alternate transparent and opaque rings as a result of diffraction.
An open circuit impedance parameters that are used to describe the behaviour of linear circuits.
Zulu Time
Also known as Coordinated Universal Time or Universal Coordinated Time or Universal Time Coordinated is one of the several closely related successor to the formerly called Greenwich Mean Time that is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time.